• Deservedly or not New Orleans early acquired a reputation as a wicked city.
    ALL early travelers to New Orleans who recorded their impressions found it a gay town. Some welcomed this gaiety; others looked upon it with marked disapproval. New Orleans was a French and Spanish city for almost a century before it became part of the United States. From its founders it inherited a Latin joie de vivre, as well as a freedom from certain types of race prejudice; and its position as a seaport added to its cosmopolitan sophistication.

  • The freedom from race prejudice gave rise to many unusual customs. By Governor Miro's time (1785-92), New Orleans, then a city of less than eight thousand, had fifteen hundred free, unmarried women of color. Free men of color had grown numerous enough by 1815 to form a regiment and to play a creditable part in the defense of the city.

  • During the entire first half of the nineteenth century, the quadroons consorted for merrymaking and display in the balls, which took place first in the Salle St. Philippe on St. Philip Street, and at a later date in a large brick building situated on Orleans Street, between Royal and Bourbon. In those days the ballroom was connected with the old Orleans Theatre and Opera House. The building still stands, but today, by a twist of irony, its atmosphere is sanctified. It is the Convent of the Sisters of the Holy Family, a school for mulatto children conducted by mulatto nuns.

  • No social stigma was attached to the quadroon balls in their heyday. They were conducted with great propriety and distinct elegance. Supremely exclusive, like many a Parisian salon of the same or earlier periods, but on a slightly altered scale, they were simply gatherings of the town's wealthy white young men and their present or prospective mistresses. From all accounts, the balls seem to have been gay, lavish, even fabulous, but highly decorous affairs. And well may they have been so, for the quadroon mistresses were often creatures of rare beauty and distinction, meriting even the glance of royalty. The Duke of Saxe-Weimar describes them as follows:

  • A quadroon is the child of a mestize mother and a white father, as a mestize is the child of a mulatto mother and a white father. The quadroons are almost entirely white; from their skin no one could detect their origin; nay, many of them have as fair a complexion as many of the haughty Creole females. Such of them as frequent these balls are free. Formerly they were known by their black hair and eyes, but at present there are completely fair quadroons male and female. Still, however, the strongest prejudice reigns against them because of their black blood, and the white ladies maintain, or affect to maintain, the most violent aversion toward them.

  • When a young white man took a fancy to one of these girls, he approached her mother, and having given satisfactory proof of his ability to keep the girl in becoming style, struck a bargain with the old woman. Money changed hands, and the quadroon regarded this arrangement in the same light as a marriage. The young man established a home for his mistress in the quadroon quarter, which was in that section of the Vieux Carre below Orleans Street and near the Ramparts, and enjoyed all the comforts and amenities thereof without actually residing there himself. This arrangement lasted as long as he wished it so. The placee, as she was called, took her ' friend's name, which was also given to their children, many of whom were reared in an atmosphere of culture, and were often sent to Paris to be educated. The young girls were particularly well schooled in the arts of courtesanship so that they 'could follow in their mothers' footsteps.

  • Quadroon mistresses had their quadroon friends and amusements, and, of course, the quadroon balls; but they could not mix with the white ladies, could not sit down in their presence, nor ride through the streets in carriages. A white woman could have a quadroon whipped like a slave upon accusation borne out by two witnesses. Quadroon men were never allowed to attend the balls. Scorned by women of their own class as well as by whites, they either followed some trade in the city or went into the country on plantations. They usually married mulatto women.

  • When the young white man decided it was time to marry, he simply broke off his arrangement and was free to make another alliance. Some men continued the arrangement even after marriage by maintaining two homes, one in each section of the city. Some really loved their quadroon mates and never married at all.

  • According to Harriet Martineau, writing in 1837, 'the quadroon connection was all but universal; every young man early selects one and establishes her in one of those pretty and peculiar houses, whole rows of which may be seen in the ramparts.'

  • Twenty years later, Frederick Law Olmstead describes this Creole institution in virtually the same words, but adds a characteristic Yankee touch. He tells of meeting a northern 'drummer' who claimed that he always made an arrangement of this character while in New Orleans because 'it was cheaper than living in hotels and boarding-houses.'

  • These women were not prostitutes. White enough to refuse to mix with the Negroes, since the law forbade their marriage with white men they apparently had no alternative but to become the mistresses of white men who were willing to support them. They regarded such arrangements in the same light as marriage and are said to have been generally faithful to their bargain. When their lovers broke off the relationship they sometimes took another 'friend,' but usually they drifted into the rooming-house business, in which they were very successful. Even as late as the Cotton Exposition of 1884, they were favorably known for their success in this line.

  • After the Civil War the quadroon balls lost their former character. Tinker describes a visit to one of them which Lafcadio Hearn made in 1880. It was conducted by a noted procuress named Hermina in an old mansion on Bienville Street, between Burgundy and Dauphine Streets. A new era that of the 'honky-tonk' had long since gained the ascendancy. The Reconstruction Era worked such devastating havoc upon the fortunes of Southern white aristocracy that they were hard put to shift for themselves, let alone maintain luxurious institutions in antebellum style. Besides, the decades following the War brought a steadily increasing influx of Northern ideas and customs to the South, so that by 1880 the quadroon balls had lost all their old-time glamour.

  • The first tenderloin section of New Orleans was in Gallatin Street, a short alley that runs from the French Market to the Mint, between North Peters and Decatur Streets. Its proximity to the river front long ago helped to earn for Gallatin Street a most unsavory reputation, which clung to it until about 1900. Prostitutes from every nation gathered there, living a life of boisterous lawlessness and open vice. In recent years it became a street of empty houses, the lower floors of which were sometimes used for the storage of produce. In 1936 the houses on the river side of Gallatin Street were torn down to make way for new market buildings.

  • As the city grew in size disorderly houses gained footholds in other sections. About 1850, some of them were driven off Canal Street. A newspaper account of the great fire of 1851, when the St. Charles Hotel and many other buildings were burned, mentions the destruction of two houses of ill fame on Poydras Street next to the Methodist Church. Commercialized vice often followed in the wake of disappearing respectability. Fine old homes, once occupied by the city's elite, later became boarding houses as the neighborhoods changed, and still later, scattered havens of prostitution. Annunciation Square, residential sections of Camp, St. Charles, and Carondelet Streets, the famous '13 Buildings' on Julia Street, on the uptown side between Camp and St. Charles where many of the prominent families of the forties and fifties made their homes, and many a fine home in the French section, all passed through this checkered experience.

  • The first action against immoral establishments was taken in 1817 by the city council, which imposed a fine on both woman and house-owner for disturbing the peace or occasioning scandal. In 1845 lewd women were forbidden to frequent or drink in coffee houses. In 1857 a detailed ordinance was passed, defining the limits beyond which prostitution would not be tolerated, imposing taxes on the inmates and house-owners, and requiring that each woman should take out a yearly license, to be issued to her by the Mayor upon proof that her taxes had been paid. White women and free women of color were forbidden to live in the same house. Standing or sitting on the sidewalk in indecent posture, and the accosting of passersby, were prohibited under penalty of a fine or jail sentence.

  • The territorial limits prescribed at that time are interesting. They were: Felicity Road, Hercules (South Rampart), New Canal (New Basin), Claiborne, and Canal Streets in the First District; Canal, Basin, Toulouse, and Bayou St. John (Carondelet Canal), Esplanade and Toulouse in the Second District; Esplanade, Broad, and Elysian Fields Streets in the Third District. These boundaries indicate that the establishments in Basin Street were of an early origin.

  • Following the emancipation of Negro slaves and the legalization of gambling in Louisiana in 1869, social life in the New Orleans underworld assumed a new status. Centralization began anew, and the restricted 'district' was but a step ahead. An eyewitness gives us a graphic picture of Royal Street during the Cotton Exposition of 1884:

  • Brilliantly lighted by a new electric flare system, the street is thronged with men of all classes, who enter or emerge from its many saloons and gambling houses, which throb with the raucous sounds of pleasure-bent men and women. Timid crowds of men stand upon the curbstone to catch a glimpse of female limbs draped in gauze of pink and blue. Arrayed in scant garments, but gorgeous in combinations of color, are young and middle-aged; youthful and fresh, together with wearied and worn, whited sepulchers; watching among the throng which enters, those whom their judgment dictates have money to spend or throw away upon them in remuneration for a display of their utter unconsciousness of virtue.

During the reform agitation of the eighties and nineties a school of thought developed which advocated a restricted district for the better control of prostitution. This plan finally found expression in an ordinance, sponsored by Alderman Story, and passed by the city council on January 26th, 1897, at the first session under Mayor Flower. Definite limits were set down for the district, but even so, residence there was not legalized, so that the city held complete control of the situation. The theory was that all prostitutes could be confined within these limits, policed, and controlled, and that thus the evil could be kept in hand. This theory was not entirely successful in practice, for houses of assignation were to be found elsewhere, sometimes on the finest residential streets. Nevertheless the restricted district soon became one of the most amazing spectacles of legalized vice that had ever been seen.

The limits of the district, as defined by the ordinance, were: the south side of Custom House (Iberville) Street, from Basin to Robertson Streets, east side of Robertson Street from Customhouse to St. Louis Streets, south side of St. Louis from Robertson to Basin. At first the Negroes and mulattoes were allowed in certain sections of the restricted district, but on March 1, 1917, a restricted Negro district was established. The boundaries were: Perdido Street to the lower side of Gravier, and from the river side of Franklin to the wood side of Locust (Liberty).

The restricted district enjoyed a legal existence from 1897 to 1917. During those two decades it attained the zenith of its fame; it was the show place and scandal of the city. Visitors from near and far, lured by the tales of wantonness and tinseled gaiety, almost invariably included the district in their itinerary. Depending upon their temperaments and viewpoints, they left elated or appalled by the scenes they had witnessed, scenes that usually far surpassed even their most fantastic expectations. To the average well-bred native Orleanian, however, the district was no 'thing of beauty'; it was merely a rather bad civic sore, which one was aware of but avoided. It was a world of 'honky-tonks' and 'dives,' 'palaces' and 'cribs,' sordid indeed, but militantly gay and carefree. Jazz and swing music are said to have originated in the dance halls and saloons of New Orleans' red light district.

At Carnival time, and especially on Mardi Gras Day, the district opened its arms to welcome everyone. King Zulu, leader of the Negro carnival celebration, had his headquarters in the black section of the district, back toward Robertson and St. Louis Streets. Maskers thronged its streets and peals of celebrations rang from every house. In other seasons, the district nourished only at night, for it was drab and deserted by day. As it adjoined the tracks leading into the Terminal Station on Canal Street, visitors arriving in the city were treated to a broadside view of its 'palaces' and glimpses up side streets of the 'crib' sections, before they saw much else; and respectable citizens who otherwise never went near the place furtively surveyed the scene when departing on, or returning from, a trip.

The restricted district was ironically dubbed 'Storyville' in honor of, the alderman whose ordinance created it. Storyville's central spot was the 'Arlington Annex,' Tom Anderson's main saloon, at the corner of Customhouse and Basin Streets, adjoining the Arlington 'palace.' The Annex was figuratively the 'city hall' of Storyville, and Tom Anderson was its 'mayor.' He bossed the restricted district and in addition was a member of the State Legislature, the owner of a chain of saloons, and the head of an oil company.

In Arlington Annex one could obtain for twenty-five cents a copy of the Blue Book, official directory and guide to Storyville. The Blue Book listed in alphabetical order and in separate sections respectively the names and addresses of all the prostitutes in the place. It also contained many advertisements from local and national distillers and cigarmakers, as well as a few from neighboring drugstores and taxi companies. Most enticing of all Blue Book contents, however, were the puffs and occasional photographs, which extolled the graces and qualifications of Storyville's most prominent sirens.

'Why visit the playhouse to see the famous Parisian models,' urged one of these, 'when one can see the French damsels, Norma and Diana? Their names have been known on both continents, because everything goes as it will, and those that cannot be satisfied with these must surely be of a queer nature.' Another assures the reader that he 'can travel from one end of this continent to the other, but to find another good fellow as game as Gipsy (Shaffer), who is always ready to receive and entertain, will be almost an impossibility.' A third proclaims that Miss May Spencer has the distinction of conducting one of the best establishments in the Tenderloin District, 'where swell men can be socially entertained by an array of swell ladies.' 'If you have the blues,' says a fourth, 'the Countess (Willie Piazza) and her girls can cure them.' And so they went on and on, each mistress attempting to outdo her rivals in luring the wealthy ' sport ' to her palace of joy.

Two other publications in the flush times of the district contained, together with much more reporting of the Police Gazette kind, notices of the doings of the prostitutes, prominent and obscure. In 1894, the Mascot, the more important of the two, inaugurated a Society column in which the gay whirl of life 'on the turf' was reported. The Sunday Sun, the other of these weeklies, soon followed suit with a Chat column.

Having purchased a copy of the Blue Book from the 'Annex,' one could go 'down the line' on Basin Street, where the exclusive mansions stood, or along Custom House (Iberville) Street, where rows and rows of 'cribs' stretched out before him. The Basin Street 'palaces' were lavishly furnished in the barbaric taste of the inhabitants. Heavily carved plush-covered furniture, and gaudy tapestries and drapes, provided a rococo atmosphere that was further accentuated by massive gilt statuary, ivory curios, leopard-skin rugs, potted palms, and cut-glass candelabra. Everything was in the worst possible taste. But to the various Spanish, French, Italian, Egyptian, and Octoroon damsels as well as their sundry mistresses, their environs rivaled the courts of kings.

This entertainment offered a direct contrast to that provided in the 'cribs' which were bare one-room affairs that abutted on the sidewalk, and contained nothing more than a bed, a table, and a chair. There were from twenty to thirty cribs in a single block ancient structures with a common roof and low-hanging eaves. The barest of them, however, brought a rental of at least seventy-five dollars a month.

But whatever the crib sections lacked in quality and distinctiveness, they more than made up for in volume, boisterousness, and joie de vivre. The women were not permitted to leave the house, so they solicited vocally from behind doorways and window blinds. Those who went to see caught glimpses of beckoning hands and chalk-white faces in the poorly illumined rooms along the row. Some cribs outshone others by the variety and arrangement of red light bulbs that glowed in their interiors, but for the most part they presented a striking uniformity in every respect. Eventually in some sections restrictions as to color disappeared, and whites and blacks and all the possible variations were to be found in the same block.

From dance halls and saloons came the jangling of pianos and the shuffling sounds of dancers. Dice games were always in progress. Gruff voices of men and high-pitched tones of women intermingled in argument or laughter. Drunks who had spent or lost all their money were shoved away from one place after another until a policeman took them into custody. Finally, in the small hours of the morning, the last visitor made his rounds of the houses the rent collector who would listen to no excuse and whose business methods were ruthless.

Storyville today is not as we have here depicted it. In the last twenty years, its inhabitants have undergone many vicissitudes; its palaces and cribs have become decaying hulks. Many have disappeared altogether to make way for the increasing spread of automobile parking grounds.

On the heels of much persistent vice-crusading by Miss Jean Gordon and other civic leaders for the suppression of the restricted district, came a request from Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy under President Wilson, urging, as a war measure, the large cities of the nation, to curb all forms of vice. A local ordinance therefore closed the district officially on October 10, 1917. The red-light district never regained its pre-war legal status.

That this is so can easily be demonstrated; for where can one find the equals of former celebrated procuresses? Countess Willie Piazza, under whose roof a Central-American revolution was hatched, is dead. She is dead and her gilded mirrors and green plush chairs and white piano sold at auction; the piano, badly in need of tuning, going for $1.25. Josie Arlington was buried in and later removed from Metairie Cemetery, but a bronze maiden, representative of the virgins whom Josie never allowed in her house, still knocks in vain on the door of her tomb; and a legend which tells of a red light mysteriously issuing from the grave is current. Tom Anderson's name is in tile on the corner of Iberville and Saratoga Streets, and Lulu White's name may still be seen cut in the glass transom of her palace at 235 Basin Street; but the palace is now a warehouse. When Beth Brown wrote For Men Only in 1930, her heroine, Lily Love, flourished in the whalebone period, as did Mae West in her cinematic portrayal of another 'sporting house Lulu,' in 'Belle of the Nineties,' which at first was to be called 'Belle of New Orleans'. The Basin Street Blues' hark back with a nostalgic wail to an era dead and gone.
Won't-cha come a-long with me,
To the Mis-sis-sip-pi?
We'll take the boat to the lan' of dreams,
Steam down the river down to New Orleans;
The bands there to meet us,
Old friends to greet us,
Where all the light and the dark folks meet
This is Ba-sin Street.
'Basin Street Blues'

Storyville, New Orleans Red-Light District 1897-1917