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Boré Petit Pitot Watkins Mather
Girod Macarty Roffignac. Prieur Bertus
Genois Freret Prieur Bertus Freret
Montegut Crossman Lewis Waterman Stith
Monroe Shepley Weitzel French Weitzel
Deming Miller Durell Miller Hoyt
Kennedy Quincy Burke Kennedy Rozier
Clark Monroe Heath Conway Flanders
Wiltz Leeds Pilsbury Patton Shakspeare
Behan Guillotte Shakspeare Fitzpatrick Flower
Capdevielle Behrman

Étienne de Boré, appointed: 30 Nov 1803 - 26 May 1804

Though born in Kaskaskia, Illinois, he was sent to Europe to be educated and spent most of his life there. On leaving school he entered French military service in the King's Musketeers, and, later, after a visit to Louisiana, on business, was transferred to the cavalry. He left the army with the rank of captain. He owned a great plantation a few miles above the City of New Orleans. There he had originally cultivated indigo. But when this product lost its market as a result of competition from Guatemala, he turned his attention to the manufacture of sugar. On his estate he set up a sugar mill and there, in 1795, had, with the aid of two Cubans, Mendez and Lopez, succeeded in producing the first granulated sugar ever known in the colony, with the result that agriculture was completely revolutionized.

He was appointed mayor by Governor William C. C. Claiborne in 1803; he resigned to look after his personal affairs the following year. He died at around 80 years old, and is buried in New Orleans' Saint Louis Cemetery No. 1. One of his daughters was the mother of Louisiana historian Charles Gayarré.

Étienne de Boré
(27 December 1741 – 1 February 1820)

Pierre Petit, pro-tem
Jacques-François Pitot, appointed: 2 Jun 1804 - 26 Jul 1805.

Jacques-François Pitot received his education in one of the best schools in Paris, but at the outbreak of the French Revolution of 1789, this young French nobleman was forced to flee France. He sailed for the French island of Santo Domingo, where he departed for the United States in Philadelphia and finally to Norfolk, in Virginia. He became acquainted with Louis Philippe Roffignac who took him in Louisiana. He became a wealthy merchant of the city of New Orleans and became mayor of this city one year after the Louisiana Purchase 2-June-1804 in lieu of Etienne de Bore.

Pitot was appointed the second mayor of New Orleans, serving from June 2, 1804 to July 26, 1805. In his message of resignation to the Governor he stated: “My affairs not allowing me to fulfill the function of Mayor, I am forced to tender herewith my resignation, appreciating all the marks of kindness and of confidence which I received at your hands, I beg you to accept my sincere appreciation.” In this graceful and ceremonious way such things were done in those days. A little later, however, Pitot was able to accept another, though less burdensome post when Governor Claiborne appointed him Judge of the first Probate Court of the territory. He remained on the bench until his death, November 4, 1831.

One of his former ancestors, known as Ti-Pitot, commanded a squadron of cavalry during the Seventh Crusade.

(James) Jacques-François Pitot
born Normandy, France (1761?> 1784
died November 4th, 1831

John Watkins: 27 Jul 1805 - 8 Mar 1807
(b. 17... - d. 1812)
Joseph J. Mather: 9 Mar 1807 - 16 May 1812
(b. 1750 - d. 1821)
Charles Trudeau (acting): 16 May 1812 - 8 Oct 1812
Nicholas Girod: 8 Oct 1812 - 4 Sep 1815
(b. 1747 - d. 1840)
Angustin Macarty: 4 Sep 1815 - 13 May 1820
(b. 1774 - d. 1844)
Count Louis Philippe (Joseph) de Roffignac (sometimes spelled Rouffignac): 14 May 1820 - 10 May 1828.

He was born in Angoulême. At the age of fourteen he was a page in the household of his godmother, the Duchess of Orléans; at seventeen, he joined the French army as a lieutenant of artillery. He first saw service in Spain, under his father. At twenty-four he was promoted captain for gallant and meritorious service in the field. His army career then took him to America, and in 1800 he settled in Louisiana. He served ten consecutive terms in the state legislature. For his participation in the Battle of New Orleans, he was made an honorary brigadier general. When the Louisiana Legion was formed, in 1822, he became its colonel. Among his many business endeavors, he was for a time a director of the State Bank of Louisiana. For many years he was a member of the City Council, and was a member of that body when elected mayor.

As mayor of New Orleans, Roffignac sought to develop the city as fast as possible, borrowing large sums of money by issuing "city stock", a form of municipal bonds. He used the money to improve and beautify the city: he was responsible for the massive planting of trees as well the first street paving. In 1821 he introduced street lighting. In the late 1820s he organized the city's first regular fire department. He established New Orleans' first public educational system. He also strove to regulate gambling, but was only the first of several mayors to deal with this long intractable problem.

He resigned in 1828 and returned to France, to a leisurely retirement in literary and social pursuits. He died at his château, near Périgueux, under curious circumstances: according to the medical examiner called in to determine the precise cause of his death, he had been sitting in his invalid chair, examining a loaded pistol, when he was suddenly overwhelmed by an apoplectic stroke and fell to the floor; in the fall, the pistol fired into his brain.
Count Louis Philippe Joseph de Roffignac - May 14, 1820 - May 10, 1828 - escaped the guillotine and fled his native France for the swampy shores of the Ponchartrain. There he fought alongside Andrew Jackson against the British in the Battle for New Orleans, and by the 1820’s had became the city’s Mayor. Amongst many things, he was credited for bringing cobblestone and city lighting to the streets of the French Quarter. And like any good Frenchman, Joseph drank his share of Cognac, which he was known to mix with seltzer, ice and rich raspberry syrup in a tall glass.

Little did he know this early highball-of-sorts would forevermore bear his name—sitting alongside other classic New Orleans cocktails such as the Sazerac, the Ramos Fizz and the Vieux Carré. As with (what many consider to be) the first cocktail, the Sazerac, imbibers began to swap the relatively scarce Cognac for the more readily available and popular rye whiskey. And while a rye Sazerac is a match made in heaven, we find Cognac or Brandy still makes for the best Roffignac.

Louis Philippe de Roffignac
(b. 1766 - d. 1846)

Denis Prieur: 12 May 1828 - 9 Apr 1838, (1st term)
and again from 14 April 1842 - 7 February 1843
Paul Bertus (acting)
April 10, 1838 - May 12, 1838
Charles Genois: 12 May 1838 - 10 May 1840, Democratic

Genois's brief tenure has been characterized as feeble because of a stagnant period that followed the enterprise outbreak during his predecessor's term. However, Genois's administration started dealing with the consequences of the previous mayors' heavy borrowing, so reforms and improvements were postponed while a solution to financial troubles was found. The main event of Genois's term was the January 1840 dedication of the Jackson monument in the presence of Andrew Jackson.

Charles Genois is buried in New Orleans, Louisiana in St. Louis Cemetery No. 2.
Charles Genois
(c. 1793 – August 30, 1866)
William Freret (Whig): 11 May 1840 - 4 Apr 1842, (1st term)
and 27 Feb 1843 - 12 May 1844 (2nd term)

He was born in New Orleans, and was of mixed English and French descent: his father was an English merchant who settled in New Orleans and married a Creole woman. His father built on the boy's natural mechanical talent, sending him to Europe to be educated in engineering and the mechanical arts. He returned to New Orleans and eventually succeeded to his father's business of compressing cotton for shipment abroad. Under his direction, the Freret Cotton Press Company became the first large industrial firm in New Orleans, and propelled him to public visibility and a political career. Despite his Creole mother, he joined the Native American party, a new political group that sought to limit the influence on public affairs of Creoles and other groups viewed as "foreign"; under its banner he won the 1840 election by 1,051 votes to the 942 of his predecessor Charles Genois.

His meticulous temperament made him one of the most efficient mayors in New Orleans' history; he was a hands-on administrator notorious for his surprise inspections of city facilities, for example. His term was marked by the continuation of the city's recovery from the combined effects of the borrowing and spending of previous mayors and the nationwide economic crisis of 1837, and hampered by the curious administration he inherited, in which the city was divided into three autonomous — and often acrimoniously competing — "Municipalities". Despite these difficulties, he succeeded in establishing a free public school system and obtaining backing for it at the state level: this is considered to be his greatest achievement.

At the expiration of his term he ran for re-election but lost to Denis Prieur, a former mayor; who, however, was mayor for only eight months, resigning to take a state office; Freret filled the remainder of Prieur's term.

He ran for a third term in the elections of 1844, but they seem to have been marked by widespread fraud, and he lost to Joseph Edgard Montegut. In 1850, he was appointed Collector of the Port of New Orleans by President Zachary Taylor.

Freret is buried in New Orleans, Louisiana, in St. Patrick Cemetery. Freret Street in New Orleans is named for him.

William Freret
(1804 – June 14, 1864)

Denis Prieur (2nd term)
April 4, 1842 - February 7, 1843
Paul Bertus (2nd term) (acting)
February 7, 1843 - February 26, 1843
William Freret (2nd term)
February 27, 1843 - May 12, 1844
Joseph Edgard Montegut: 13 May 1844 - 5 April 1846, Democratic
Abdiel Daily Crossman: 11 May 1846 (6 April 1846?)- 26 Mar 1854, having served four consecutive terms.

His family came from Massachusetts and was of old Puritan stock. He was born in the town of Greene, Maine. What instruction he had was obtained from his parents, who, at night, taught him a little reading, writing, and arithmetic. By his own efforts, however, he later acquired a good education. The father was a hatter by trade and brought his son up to follow the same business. Crossman left home at an early age to seek his fortune in the cities. He went first to Philadelphia but in 1829 moved to New Orleans, where he arrived with only five dollars in his pocket. He managed to open a small shop in Canal Street, at the time a very poor location. His business succeeded almost immediately, however, and it was not long before he was one of New Orleans' more respected merchants, becoming a director in several banks and an officer of some of the more prominent benevolent societies.

In 1844 Crossman was elected to the State Legislature, becoming also a member of the Council of the First Municipality. He advanced to the post of chairman of the finance committee, a position which had been abandoned by several able men, on account of the difficulties which the management of the local finances were beginning to develop. Crossman set to work to reduce expenses and increase revenues, with such success that he was soon able to put the credit of the municipality upon a secure basis. It was this proof of administrative talent that led to his nomination for mayor, by the Whig Party in 1846. The election, held on April 5, 1846, gave Crossman a plurality of 2,989 votes, against two other candidates who split the Democratic Party vote, Guirot with 2,743, and former mayor Edgar Montégut with 1,614.

By the end of his first term, Crossman had been so successful that on he handily won his next election on April 3, 1848, 5,090 votes to 2,986 for the sole opposing candidate; his third term was secured by a much harder fought victory, with 4,984 votes to 4,452 for Bell, the Democratic candidate. His fourth and final term was the hardest fought, with 4,993 votes going to Crossman and 4,877 to his opponent Lewis, the candidate of a new reform party. In general, his power base was the older quarter of town, which for most of his tenure was represented by the First Municipality.

The salient events of Crossman's long administration were the patriotic and military enterprises undertaken in the city in connection with the war in Mexico; the flooding of the city in 1849, caused by a break in one of the levees; the Spanish riot of 1851; yellow fever epidemics in 1852 and 1853, the worst in the city's history to date; and the new city charter, in which the three-municipality system was abandoned for a return to a single, efficient government.

During the war New Orleans was the chief military depot of operations against Mexico. The streets were constantly filled with recruits on their way to join their commands at various stations in the West. With them came many undesirable characters, the control of whom imposed serious burdens on the city's small police force. Sick and destitute, also, collected in the wake of the army. Not only was the mayor called on to preserve order, but to devise methods whereby charity might effectively provide for the unfortunate. Benevolence was a conspicuous trait of Mayor Crossman's character; he threw himself into charity work with zeal and success.

The 1849 flooding of New Orleans was due to a break in a levee on the Sauvé plantation north of the city on May 3; by May 30, "Sauvé's Crevasse" had caused the inundation of 220 blocks and the displacement of 12,000 people. After the flood, much of New Orleans had to be repaved, drainage gutters replaced, and a new levee was built on Felicity Street.

On August 21, 1851, a serious riot broke out in New Orleans when it became known that a revolution led by General Narciso López had failed to take control of that island, and had been executed by the Cuban government: López having obtained much of his financial backing in New Orleans, a mob wrecked a number of Spanish-owned stores in the city and attacked the Spanish consulate. Rather than quell the riot, the city let it run; Spain was eventually compensated by the American government. April 12, 1852 may be considered the crowning date of Crossman's career. He had striven to repel the cumbersome three-municipality charter of the city, and succeeded when a new city charter was adopted on that date, reconsolidating the three municipalities (and incidentally annexing the suburb of Lafayette).

Crossman also worked to promote railroad links between New Orleans and the rest of the country, and to have the U. S. government establish a naval depot in town. At the end of his fourth term, in accordance with the provisions of the new city charter which prohibited the immediate re-election of a mayor, he stepped down; continuing, however, to serve New Orleans in various political capacities, chiefly as a member of the council.

Tomb of Mayor Abdiel Crossman
Greenwood Cemetery

Crossman died in New Orleans and was buried in Greenwood Cemetery. The seed text for this article was abridged and adapted from Kendall's History of New Orleans (1922), public domain.

A. D. Crossman
(1804 – June 13, 1859)

John L. Lewis: 10 Apr 1854 - 17 Jun 1856, Democratic
Charles W. Waterman: 17 Jun 1856 - 8 Jun 1858, American
Gerald Stith: 21 Jun 1858 - 18 Jun 1860, American
John T. Monroe: 18 Jun 1860 - 16 May 1862 (1st term)
and 12 May 1866 – 28 March 1867 (2nd term), American

He was born May 6, 1822, in Dinwiddie County, Virginia, US or in Howard's County, Missouri, US. Married to Rebecca Isadora Shepard. Born 1826 in New Orleans. They had 9 children.

Upon Monroe's imprisonment, Butler appointed Brigadier General George F. Shepley, Military Commandant of New Orleans.

Refusing to take the oath of allegiance, Monroe was at one time consigned to solitary confinement and was for six months made to wear the ball and chain. While he was at Fort St. Philip, his young son fell terminally ill. Mrs. Monroe applied to Butler for the release of her husband, in order that he could be at the bedside of his dying child. Butler sent word that if Monroe would take the oath of allegiance he might come to the city and see his child, but the offer was declined and the child died without him.

The following year, Monroe was released. He went to Mobile and then to Richmond, where he was received by President Davis. Later he fixed his residence in Mobile, where he was taken prisoner by General Edward Canby. After the close of the war Monroe was arrested a third time, with no reason given by the Provost Marshal for his extraordinary proceeding and kept under surveillance for several months.

Retirement Monroe moved to Savannah, where he died February 24, 1871, at the age of 48. He had been a 33rd degree Mason, and was buried in Savannah with Masonic honors. In 1872 his remains were brought to New Orleans, where they were placed in the family tomb in the Cypress Grove Cemetery, beside the body of his favorite son.

John T. Monroe
(b. May 6, 1822 - d. 24 February 1871)

George Foster Shepley: 20 May 1862 - 11 Jul 1862 (appointed acting military Mayor), a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War, and 18th Governor of Louisiana by General Benjamin Butler in June 1862. He later served as a United States federal judge.

Born in Saco, Maine, Shepley studied law at Harvard University, and then received an A.B. from Dartmouth College in 1837. He read law to enter the Bar in 1839, and was in private practice in Bangor, Maine from 1839 to 1844, and in Portland, Maine from 1844 to 1861. He was a U.S. Attorney for the District of Maine from 1848 to 1849 and from 1853 to 1861.

Military career: Shepley joined the army in November 1861 as a colonel of the 12th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment. He served as the acting military mayor of New Orleans from May 20, 1862 – July 11, 1862. This appointment lasted less than two months before Shepley was appointed military governor of the occupied parishes of Louisiana from 1862–1864, with the rank of brigadier general. Shepley later served as the first military governor of Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capital.

Post-war legal and judicial career: After the war, Shepley returned to his private practice in Portland in 1865. He was a member of the Maine House of Representatives from 1866 to 1867, and continued in private practice until 1869. On December 8, 1869, Shepley was nominated by President Ulysses S. Grant to a new seat on the United States circuit court for the First Circuit created by 16 Stat. 44. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 22, 1869, and received his commission the same day. He continued in that office until his death.

George Foster Shepley
(January 1, 1819 –
July 20, 1878)

Godfrey Weitzel
14 Jul 1862 - 5 Aug 1862 (1st term) (acting)
Jonas B. French: 6 (16?) Aug 1862 - 20 Aug 1862 (acting)
Godfrey Weitzel: 21 Aug 1862 - 30 Sep 1862 (2nd term) (acting)
Henry Champion Deming: 2 Oct 1862 - 30 Jan 1863 (acting), was a U.S. Representative from Connecticut.

Born in Colchester, Connecticut, Deming pursued classical studies. He was graduated from Yale College in 1836 where he was a 1836 initiate into the Skull and Bones Society, and from the Harvard Law School in 1839. Career: He was admitted to the bar in 1839 and began practice in New York City but devoted his time chiefly to literary work. He moved to Hartford, Connecticut, in 1847.

Politics: He served as member of the State House of Representatives in 1849, 1850, and 1859–1861. He served as member of the State Senate in 1851. He served as mayor of Hartford, Connecticut from 1854 to 1858 and 1860–1862.

Military -- He entered the Union Army in September 1861 as colonel of the Twelfth Regiment, Connecticut Volunteers. He served as mayor of New Orleans under martial law from October 1862 to February 1863, when he resigned from the Army.

Return to Politics: Deming was elected as a Republican to the Thirty-eighth and Thirty-ninth Congresses (March 4, 1863 – March 3, 1867).

He served as chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of War (Thirty-eighth and Thirty-ninth Congresses).

He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1866 to the Fortieth Congress.

He was appointed collector of internal revenue in 1869 Death --He continued in this posting and served until his death in Hartford, Connecticut, October 8, 1872. He was interred in Spring Grove Cemetery.

H. C. Deming
(May 23, 1815 – October 8, 1872)

James F. Miller: 30 Jan 1863 - 12 Sep 1863 (1st term) (acting)
and 6 November 1863 – 2 February 1864
Edward Henry Durell: 12 Sep 1863 - 30 Oct 1863 (acting), and later a United States federal judge.

Born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Durell graduated from Harvard College in 1831 and read law to enter the Bar in 1834. He had a private practice in Pittsburgh, Mississippi and New Orleans, Louisiana from 1835 to 1854, and was a member of the City Council of New Orleans in 1854. From 1862 to 1863, he was president of the Bureau of Finance of New Orleans.

On May 20, 1863, Durell received a recess appointment from President Abraham Lincoln to a seat on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana vacated by Theodore McCaleb. While sitting on the court, Durell became mayor of New Orleans on September 12, 1863, and held the office for just over a month and a half, until October 30. Durell was formally nominated to the court on February 8, 1864, and was confirmed by the United States Senate, and received his commission, on February 17, 1864. On July 27, 1866, the Districts of Louisiana were reunited into a single United States District Court for the District of Louisiana by 14 Stat. 300, and Durell was reassigned to this court by operation of law. He thereafter served until his resignation on December 4, 1874.

Durell returned to private practice, in Newburgh and Schoharie, New York, until his death, in Schoharie.

Edward Henry Durell
(July 14, 1810 – March 29, 1887)

James F. Miller: 6 Nov 1863 - 2 Feb 1864 (acting) (2nd term)
Stephen Hoyt: 9 Feb 1864 - 21 Mar 1865 (acting)
Hugh Kennedy: 21 Mar 1865 - 5 May 1865 (1st term) (acting) and 28 June 1865 – 18 March 1866.

Kennedy was also a journalist and businessman. He was born in Belfast, Ireland, July 1, 1810, of Scottish parents. Education: graduated from the Belfast Academical and Collegiate Institution, a Presbyterian school, and studied law in London. Emigrated from London in 1833 to New Orleans via New York. Druggist for ten years before he became editor of the New Orleans True Delta. Married Annie White, daughter of the city's most prominent Irish immigrant, Maunsel White (q.v.). They had three daughters. Active in the Democratic party; appointed mayor of New Orleans in March, 1865, by Gov. James Madison Wells (q.v.); removed by Gen. Nathanial Banks (q.v.) in May, 1866; never ran for elective office. Entered streetcar business; became president of the Crescent City Railroad Company in 1875. Later moved to Louisville in order to invest in coal-mining operations. Died, Louisville, May 19, 1888.
Samuel Miller Quincy: 5 May 1865 - 8 Jun 1865 (acting)

He was also a Harvard graduate (1852), lawyer and legal historian, and Union soldier in the American Civil War, during which he was wounded, captured, imprisoned, and exchanged. On February 21, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Quincy for the award of the honorary grade of brevet brigadier general, United States Volunteers, to rank from March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services during the war, The U.S. Senate confirmed the award on May 18, 1866. He was the son of Josiah Quincy, Jr., former mayor of Boston, and the younger brother of Josiah Phillips Quincy.

Samuel Miller Quincy

Glendy Burke: 8 Jun 1865 - 28 Jun 1865 (acting)
Hugh Kennedy: 28 Jun 1865 - 18 Mar 1866 (acting) (2nd term)
J. A. D. Rozier: 19 Mar 1866 - 20 Mar 1866 (acting)
George Clark: 20 Mar 1866 - 11 May 1866 (acting)
John T. Monroe: 12 May 1866 - 28 Mar 1867 (2nd term) (s.a.)

After the reorganization of Louisiana, Monroe was re-elected Mayor of New Orleans. He took office in March 1866. In March 1867, he was deposed by General Philip Sheridan under the Reconstruction Act of Congress, under the accusation that he had aided in the riot of July 30. In April Monroe visited Washington and was sympathetically received by President Johnston and Attorney-General Stanbury, who promised his restoration to office and the removal of Sheridan. However, this promise was thwarted by later and more vigorous Reconstruction efforts.
Edward Heath: 28 Mar 1867 - 10 Jun 1868.

His tenure came during the Reconstruction of Louisiana, and required a stronger personality than he brought to the office. During his term, he faced budgetary and racial problems as well as the continued interference of the military authorities of the U. S. Federal government.
John R. Conway: 10 Jun 1868 - 4 Apr 1870

John R. Conway was born in Alexandria, Virginia in 1825. In 1862, he moved to New Orleans and began work at a cotton commission house (which buys and sells cotton for a customer), but was soon fired due to the suspension of business in New Orleans by the occupying Union forces. However, in 1865, Conway, along with his brother, Colin, entered business again, now as a wholesale grocer and commission merchant.

Politics --- For quite a while, Conway had been greatly interested in politics, and considered active participation as part of his patriotic duty. After the Civil War, when the Orleans Parish Democratic Committee was reformed, Conway was named chairman. Conway worked with the Democratic State Central Committee to return control of the city back to the people, after several years of military control. Also during Conway's time as mayor, the city of New Orleans received a statue of Benjamin Franklin from neoclassical sculptor Hiram Powers.

Personal life ---- On December 9, 1857 Conway married Elize G. Waggeman. The couple had two daughters. John R. Conway participated in many organizations, including the American Legion of Honor, the Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, the Board of Trade, the Chamber of Commerce,and was an organizer of the Sons of the Revolution. On March 11, 1896, at age 70, Conway died in his home in New Orleans, and was buried in the Cypress Grove Cemetery.
Benjamin Franklin Flanders: 4 Apr 1870 - 29 Nov 1872, and appointed the 21st Governor of Louisiana during Reconstruction.

Early life: Flanders was born in Bristol, New Hampshire, on January 26, 1816. At the age of 26 he graduated from Dartmouth College in New Hampshire.

In January 1843 he moved to New Orleans and read law under Charles M. Emerson. The following year he left his study of the law to become a school teacher and principal. In 1845, Flanders became editor of New Orleans Tropic, a local newspaper, and in 1847 he married Susan H. Sawyer in Bristol, New Hamphire. They went on to have six children. Political career: Flanders was elected an Alderman representing 3rd Municipal District of New Orleans from 1847 - 1852. In 1852, he was selected as the Secretary and Treasurer of the New Orleans, Opelousas and Great Western Railroad, a position he held until 1862. In 1861, he fled New Orleans, leaving his family behind, for having opposed secession. He made his way to Cairo, Illinois, Columbus, Ohio and eventually, to New York City. He did not return to New Orleans until April 1862, when the city was captured by Union troops. On July 20, he was appointed New Orleans City Treasurer and served until his election to Congress on December 12, 1862. He was elected along with Michael Hahn as at-large Representatives of Louisiana, defeating independent incumbent J.E. Bouligny. Flanders and Hahn were not seated in Congress until the last fifteen days of their terms in February 1863.

On July 13, 1863, Flanders was made the Captain of Company C, 5th Regiment Louisiana Volunteers, a Union Army unit. He was honorably discharged in August, 1863, when he was appointed a Special Agent of the United States Treasury Department of the Southern Region by Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase. He held this position until 1866. While in office he made commissions while selling confiscated cotton. In 1864, Flanders campaigned for Governor, running a weak third place behind Michael Hahn and Fellows. He became the first Supervising Special Agent of the Freedmen’s Bureau, Department of the Gulf. At the same time, he led the movement to create a local Republican Party in Louisiana. He formed the Friends of Universal Suffrage with other scalawags to promote black suffrage and to repeal the Louisiana black codes. The tension over the rights of freed slaves would escalate into riots in 1866.

In 1867, General Phillip Sheridan, Commander of the 5th Military District, which included Louisiana and Texas, removed elected Governor James Madison Wells for not responding to the riots appropriately and for not advancing the rights of freed slaves. Sheridan appointed Flanders as Governor of Louisiana. About six months later, on January 1, 1868 Major General Winfield Scott Hancock, as the new military commander of Louisiana removes all radicals from state offices and Governor Flanders resigned on January 8 and was replaced by Joshua Baker who was appointed by General Hancock.

In 1870, Governor Henry C. Warmoth appointed Flanders the Mayor of New Orleans. He was later elected to a full two-year term as Mayor, serving until 1873. President Ulysses S. Grant appointed Flanders Assistant Treasurer of the United States in 1873. He ran unsuccessfully as a Republican candidate for Louisiana State Treasurer in 1888. Governor Flanders died at Ben Alva plantation in Lafayette Parish in 1896. He was interred at Metairie Cemetery in New Orleans.

Benjamin Franklin Flanders
(January 26, 1816 – March 13, 1896)

Louis Alfred Wiltz: 30 Nov 1872 - 30 Nov 1874

American politician from the state of Louisiana. He served as 29th Governor of Louisiana from 1880 to 1881 and before that time was mayor of New Orleans, lieutenant governor of Louisiana, and a member of the Louisiana House of Representatives.

Wiltz was born in New Orleans to J.B. Theopile Wiltz and the former Louise Irene Villanueva. He attended public school until the age of 15, when he began work with Plauche and Company. After the company failed, Wiltz became the clerk for the Second District Court of Louisiana. With the outbreak of the American Civil War, Wiltz joined the Confederate States Army as a private but quickly rose to the rank of captain. In 1863, Wiltz married Miss Bienvinue of St. Martinville, the seat of St. Martin Parish. They had four daughters and one son.

In 1868, Wiltz was elected to the Louisiana House of Representatives and the New Orleans School Board. In 1872, he was elected mayor but could not take office until 1875 because of the refusal of the Republican mayor to vacate the office. In addition to serving two years as mayor, Wiltz was once again elected to the Louisiana House of Representatives and served as lieutenant governor. He was succeeded by E.D. Estilette. With the implementation of the new Louisiana state constitution of 1879, the gubernatorial term of Francis T. Nicholls was cut short by one year. An election was held in 1879, and Louis Wiltz easily defeated his Republican opponent. Wiltz’s term as governor was one rife with corruption. The corrupt Louisiana Lottery continued to have influence over the state legislature. The state treasurer, Edward A. Burke, embezzled state funds while the public schools were neglected, and black disenfranchisement continued.

Wiltz died of tuberculosis while in office on October 16, 1881, in New Orleans. Lieutenant Governor Samuel D. McEnery, a fellow Democrat, succeeded Wiltz.

Louis A. Wiltz
(October 22, 1843–October 16, 1881)

Charles J. Leeds: 30 Nov 1874 - 19 Dec 1876
Edward Pilsbury: 19 Dec 1876 - 18 Nov 1878
Isaac W. Patton: 18 Nov 1878 - 16 Dec 1880
Joseph Ansoetegui Shakspeare: 16 Dec 1880 - 20 Nov 1882 (1st term) and again from 1888 to 1892.

Joseph Shakspeare was born in New Orleans, the son of a Quaker from Delaware, Samuel Shakspeare, and Mariane (Mathias) Shakespeare, a Swiss immigrant. He studied iron design in New York City and later returned to New Orleans to run an ironworks started by his father. He later entered politics, serving one term in the state legislature. He married Antoinette Kroos, a German immigrant, in 1863; the couple had five children.

In the municipal election of 1880, Shakspeare accepted the mayoral nomination of a coalition of reformers determined to take power from “the Ring”, a scandal-plagued local political machine. Shakspeare defeated Jules Denis, the Ring candidate, by 9803 votes to 9362. For several days, outgoing Ring mayor Isaac W. Patton refused to recognize the results. He would not give up City Hall until ordered by a judge.

First Shakspeare administration, 1880-1882— Shakspeare’s first two-year term as mayor was a difficult one. He was the only reformer elected, so he faced unending hostility from the seven-member City Council and administrative board, both still controlled by the Ring. Despite these difficulties, Shakspeare was able to overhaul the city’s disorganized budget, and managed to reschedule the crippling municipal debts left over from the Civil War and Reconstruction. He increased the city’s revenue by selling the Carrollton Street Railroad franchise and by devising the ‘Shakspeare Plan,’ a scheme whereby illegal gambling operations were able to continue to operate as long as they made regular payments to the city treasury. He attempted to reform the fire and police departments, removing them as sources of political patronage, but was thwarted by City Council. Under Shakspeare’s administration, the city enacted a new municipal charter which replaced the Reconstruction-era charter. Shakspeare’s new charter created a new thirty-member City Council with legislative power, and increased the mayor’s term of office from two years to four. His administration also began construction of the monument to Confederate General Robert E. Lee, which still stands today in Lee Circle, and authorized the creation of a monument commemorating the Battle of Liberty Place of 1874, in which the white supremacist White League attempted to overthrow the Reconstruction-era Republican state government.

Shakspeare did not run for re-election in 1882. He was succeeded in office by William J. Behan, the Ring candidate.
(b. 1837 - d. 1896)
William J. Behan: 20 Nov 1882 - 28 Apr 1884
J. Valsin Guillotte: 29 Apr 1884 - 23 Apr 1888
Second Shakspeare administration, 24 Apr 1888 - 25 Apr 1892.

In the municipal election of 1888, Shakspeare ran again as a reform candidate opposing the Ring. As before, he was supported by members of the city’s conservative Bourbon business elite, and he defeated the Ring candidate, Judge Robert C. Davey, by 23,313 votes to 15,635. The election was characterized by the presence of armed bands of men from both the reform and Ring camps. Under the rules of the new charter, Shakspeare’s second term was a four-year one. His second term was characterized by renewed street improvements, the introduction of electric street lights and street cars, and a further improvement of the city’s debt situation. His administration began construction of a new courthouse and jail complex on Tulane Avenue. He also created a professional fire department to replace the existing volunteer fire departments, which had been active in municipal machine politics. But his efforts to use the police department as a source of political patronage alienated some of his reform-oriented supporters. Shakspeare appointed David Hennessy as chief of police. Hennessy’s assassination in October 1890, allegedly by members of the Sicilian Mafia, sparked an anti-Italian riot in which the parish prison was stormed and eleven Italian immigrants were lynched. The riot created an international diplomatic incident with the government of Italy.

Shakspeare ran for a third term in 1892, but by then his reputation as a reformer was tarnished, and he was defeated by Ring candidate John Fitzpatrick, who was a popular politician with strong pro-labor credentials. Shakspeare died in New Orleans in 1896.
John Fitzpatrick: 25 Apr 1892 - 27 Apr 1896

John Fitzpatrick
(Fairfield, Vermont,
May 1, 1844 - April 8, 1919)

Walter C. Flower: 27 Apr 1896 - 7 May 1900
(b. 1850 - d. 1900)
Paul Capdevielle: 7 (9?) May 1900 - 5 Dec 1904

Of French descent, he was educated at the Jesuit College of New Orleans, graduating in 1861. He served in the Confederate Army in the American Civil War, in the New Orleans Guard Regiment of Infantry, then in Boone's Louisiana Artillery. He was captured at Port Hudson, Louisiana in July, 1863. Paroled shortly afterward, and subsequently exchanged, he entered Legardeur's artillery battery, and continued in the Confederate service till the close of the war, when he surrendered at Greensboro, North Carolina, returning to New Orleans on foot. He read law at the Tulane University Law School, graduating in 1868, and served as an attorney until 1892. In 1892 he gave up the law to accept the presidency of the Merchants' Insurance Company, an important firm which was eventually liquidated. For thirteen years Capdevielle was its president.

His political history began in 1877, when he was appointed to the State School Board by Governor Nicholls. While he was a member of this body the entire state school system was reorganized and put into effective operation. Subsequently he was appointed a member of the New Orleans Levee Board. In the election of 1900 he was the nominee of the Regular Democratic Organization; he won with 19,366 votes versus 13,099 for his predecessor Walter C. Flower.

His tenure as mayor was marked by the installation of the modern sewage and drainage system and by the Robert Charles race riots.

After his mayoral term, Capdevielle served as president of the New Orleans Public Library Board and as State Auditor of Public Accounts. He is buried in St. Louis Cemetery No. 2.

Paul Capdevielle,
(January 15, 1842 (44?) – August 14, 1922

Martin Behrman: 5 Dec 1904 - 6 Dec 1920 (1st term), American Democratic politician, was the longest-serving mayor in New Orleans history.

Behrman was born in New York City. His parents brought him to New Orleans as an infant. He lived most of his life in the Algiers neighborhood, on the west bank of the Mississippi River. As a young man he became affiliated with the Regular Democratic Organization, a powerful political faction in New Orleans, during the 1888 campaign of Francis T. Nicholls for governor of Louisiana. Behrman served as a delegate to the Louisiana state constitutional convention in 1898.

Behrman eventually served as mayor for just under 17 years, first from 1904 to 1920. After four consecutive terms he was defeated by reform candidate Andrew J. McShane. Behrman ran again in 1925 and won, serving from 1925 to 1926. He died in New Orleans less than a year into his fifth term.
Martin Behrman
(14 October 1864 – 12 January 1926)

Combined text from:
wikipedia.org — List of Mayors of New Orleans

THE early history of New Orleans will explain its remarkable municipal experiments and changes. This history is different from that of most of the other American cities, for New Orleans was under dominations and political systems of which they knew nothing. It was at one time a French, and at another a Spanish, city; and while such, conformed to the political usages and municipal systems of France and Spain. The cosmopolitanism of the town and the presence of a large negro population compelled other modifications in its government, unnecessary elsewhere.

Again, for long periods of time the city was in open or quasi rebellion against the constituted authorities, and its municipal government had to be modified in consequence. The great area over which the city was built, the peculiarities of the location, below the level of the river and a hundred other incidents resulted in producing conditions which occurred nowhere else in America, or, for that matter, in the world; and to meet these conditions experiments of various kinds, some of them the crudest imaginations, were tested from time to time. It can be said of New Orleans that every variety of municipal government that has ever been tried anywhere on the face of the civilized earth has been tested in the "Crescent City," from the centralized government dominated entirely by the State or by the military power, to an almost separate and independent municipality. Conseils superieux, cabildos and municipalities have followed each other in rapid succession. Now the French, now the Spanish, now the pretended American form of government has been adopted, each of them to last for a few years; and charter has succeeded charter, each radically different from the other. At times, so impossible did it seem to reconcile the differences, racial and political, which existed between the population of the different districts of New Orleans, that the Legislature in despair split the city up into several municipalities or cities, each with an independent government of its own, thereby reverting to the system which prevails in Oriental cities, where the European population lives in a different quarter and under different laws and regulations from the Orientals or natives.

It can be imagined from these facts how interesting the municipal history of New Orleans must be, especially as in 1896 this city secured one of the most "up-to-date" and advanced charters possessed by any municipality in the United States, and containing in it all the reform provisions inculcated and proposed by the Municipal Reform League and other organizations, which have worked for the better government of American cities. Perhaps the history of New Orleans is lacking in some of the poetry that clings to the earlier colonial story of Louisiana as told by Gayarre, but it is rich and profitable in all matters of economical and municipal politics, and teaches a far more valuable lesson than the "Romance of Louisiana."

From 1718 to 1900, New Orleans has passed through several forms of government, each radically different, as follows:
1718 to 1767 — Superior Council (French)
1767 to 1803 — Cabildo (Spanish)
1803 to 1805 — Appointive (temporary)
1805 to 1836 — Council (American)
1836 to 1852 — Separate municipalities (American and Creole)
1852 to 1862 — Council (bi-cameral)
1862 to 1866 — Military (martial law)
1866 to 1870 — Council (bi-cameral)
1872 to 1882 — Administrative (Legislative and executive the same)
1882 to 1896 — Cameral (one chamber)
1896 to – Model charter, civil-service reform, etc.

1801 — Etienne de Bore, appointed; Pierre Petit, pro-tem
James Pitot — (city incorporated)
1806 — John Watkins
1807 — Joseph Mather
1812 — Nicholas Girod
1815 — Angustin Macarty
1820 — J. Roffignac
1828 — Denis Prieur
1838 — C. Genois
1840 — William Freret
1844 — E. Montagut
1846 — A. D. Grossman
1854 — John L. Lewis
1856 — Charles M. Waterman
1858 — Gerard Stith
1860 — John T. Monroe
1862 — May, G. F. Shepley, acting military mayor
July, G. Weitzel
August, Jonas H. French
September, H. C. Deming
November, James F. Miller
1864 — July, Stephen Hoyt
1865 — May, S. M. Quincy
November, H. Kennedy
1866 — April, John T. Monroe
1866 — December, E. Heath, acting military mayor
1866 — J. R. Conway
1868 — B. F. Flanders
1872 — Louis A. Wiltz
1876 — Charles J. Leeds
1878 — Joseph A. Shakespeare
1882 — William J. Behan
1884 — Valsin Guillotte
1888 — Joseph A. Shakespeare
1900 — Paul Capdevielle
1892 — John Fitzpatrick
1896 — Walter C. Flower
    As Written

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