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D'Iberville Sauvolle Bienville Cadillac l'Epinay
Boisbriant Perier Vaudreuil Kerlérec D'Abbadie

In 1697, Lemoine D'Iberville, a brave naval officer, accompanied by his brothers, Sauvolle and Bienville, set sail with two vessels from Rochefort, in France, to renew the explorations of La Salle on the Gulf of Mexico. On March 20th, 1698, he arrived at the mouth of the Mississippi and finally settled at Biloxi. After accomplishing much important work he returned to France to solicit assistance for the colony, leaving Sauvolle in command of the Fort, and Bienville, the youngest brother, as Lieutenant. December the 7th, 1699, D'Iberville landed in Louisiana, having returned from France, and brought to Sauvolle his appointment as Governor of Louisiana, by the King. Bienville was appointed Lieutenant Governor and Boisbriant commander of Fort Biloxi, with rank of Major.

After explorations up the Mississippi in which the Chevalier Tonti joined him as far as Natchez (at that time called Rosalie, by Iberville, in honor of the Countess Pontchartrain, wife of the Chancellor, and marked out as site of a future town, Iberville departed again for France to obtain additional aid for the colony (he returned with troops and provisions in 1701, but did not remain many months in Louisiana. In 1708, he, as a distinguished naval officer, found a great deal to occupy him in the war which broke out between Great Britain, Spain and France; he could not, therefore, personally look after colonial matters, and sent in his place his brother Chateaugue, with seventeen men and implements of agricnlture. After winning celebrity by both land and sea, D'Iberville died of yellow fever in San Domingo (some say Havana), July 9th, 1706, regretted bitterly by the colonists and by France.
Pierre Le Moyne, sieur d'Iberville
(b. 1661-d. 1706)
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Sauvolle was the brother of D'Iberville and Bienville, and first royal Governor of Louisiana, being appointed to that position by Louis XIV in 1699. He was highly gifted mentally as well as charming in disposition, fitted to honor any court, brave, upright and true; but extremely delicate physically; unable to stand the deprivations and sufferings which fell to the lot of the colonists, worried in mind at his inability to protect them from hunger and disease, his frail constitution broke down completely and he died suddenly at Biloxi, July 22d, 1701. Sauvole de la Villantra
(b. 16...-d. 1701)
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Bienville was three times Governor of Louisiana, he succeeded his brother Sauvolle in 1701, his second term began in 1718, his third in 1732. During the first administration of Bienville, Louisiana was greatly injured by the commercial monopoly granted to Anthony Crozat for sixteen years; fortunately Crozat resigned his rights in 1717, after complete failure in his undertaking. Bienville, according to the King's desires, removed the seat of the colony from Biloxi, which he left under charge of his cousin Boisbriant, to the western side of the Mobile river, near the present site of Mobile City. It was to Bienville that were sent the first shipment of young girls from France as wives for the colonists; in 1705 he was delighted by the arrival of two sisters of charity, live priests, seventy-five soldiers, besides twenty-five more young girls and a quantity of provisions, goods, and ammunition. This same year an epidemic broke out in the colony and thirty-five persons perished. Bienville had many enemies, among those who were envious of him. La Salle, in particular, was opposed to him, and in 1707 an effort was made to dismiss him from office and appoint DeMuys, instead, the attempt, fortunately, was futile, for DeMuys just at this time died in Havana, and Bienville remained Governor, ad interim, until the arrival of Cadillac.

In 1718, Bienville became a second time Governor of Louisiana. The great trouble of the Colony was now the exclusive trade privilege granted in 1717 to the Mississippi Company, under John Law, for twenty-seven years; the privilege was returned to the King at the end of fourteen years; it brought about the ruin of many, but was the indirect cause of increased prosperity in the commerce and agriculture of the Colony. The present site of New Orleans was fixed on for the building of a city by Bienville in 1718; it was laid out, by his wish, in imitation of Rochefort; as early as 1723 it was made the seat of government; "it contained at that time only a few wooden cottages, a Store-house, a small chapel and two hundred inhabitants," In May, of 1719, Bienville and his brother, Seringay, appeared with their ships and troops before Pensacola, with the purpose of capturing it, but the Spanish Governor made no defense, and it capitulated immediately, its command being turned over to Chateaugue; however, in two months it was recaptured by the Spanish to fall once more in the possession of France at a later date.

January of 1721, there arrived from France three hundred colonists, and in March, two hundred from Germany.

In 1723, Bienville had much trouble with the Indians, and with his personal enemies, who finally succeeded in having him recalled to France in January of 1724, to answer the charges they had made against him.

Before leaving Louisiana he published in March the famous "Black Code"

In 1732, Bienville was re-appointed Governor of Louisiana, and returned to it in 1733, having been absent eight years; he found it in a bad condition from disease and lack of provision, and the Indians in a state of disaffection.

In 1734, Bienville had the troops quartered for the first time in comfortable barrracks, which he caused to be constructed in New Orleans on each side of the square.

In 1735 and 1736, there were great military preparations in the Colony for the purpose of making expeditions against the Indians. Bienville took his final departure from Louisiana in 1741, after having distinguished himself in the wars with the Indians. He was a man of genius, vigilant, courageous, humane and conciliating in nature. France is under deep obligations to him for his successful work in Louisiana. He died in Paris, March 7th, 1767.
Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville
1701 - 1712 (1st time)
1716 - 1717 (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting)
1718 - 16 Jan 1724 (3rd time) (s.a.)
1733 - May 1743 (4th time) (s.a.)
(b. 1661-d. 1767)

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In 1712, Louis granted to Anthony Crozat, a merchant of the East Indies, the trade monopoly of Louisiana; Crozat immediately obtained of the King that Lamothe Cadillac, a Gascon by birth and captain of infantry in Canada, be appointed Governor in 1713, Bienville was retained as Lieutenant Governor, in the mistaken hope that with his experience and superior intellect he would guide Cadillac aright. The new Governor possessed a long pedigree, but an empty purse; his intellect was limited, his self-conceit great; his disposition was a singular combination of courage, pride, morality, piety, vindictiveness, and disputatiousness.

In Canada Cadillac had gained some military reputation: but in Louisiana he devoted all his energies to the discovery of mines, from whence he hoped to derive an immense fortune. He rendered himself obnoxious to the Indians whose affections he alienated from France, and made himself ridiculous in the eyes of the colonists who nicknamed him the Black Prince, which caused the negroes to suppose he was of African descent. This soubriquet was given him because he so constantly boasted an ancestor of his had entertained the Black Prince under his roof.

Cadillac quarrelled with all of his subordinate officers, especially Bienville, who had refused to marry his daughter. To gratify his vindictiveness, he sent Bienville with a very inferior number of troops to make war against the numerous tribe of Natchez Indians, who had murdered some Frenchmen; he hoped Bienville would either be killed or prove so unsuccessful as to be discharged from his position: but Bienville was triumphant and earned additional laurels. Cadillac was finally recalled to France in 1716, much to the great joy of everyone, and imprisoned in the Bastille for four months. He later became governor of Castelsarrasin, France.
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Antoine de Lamothe Cadillac
(b. 1658-d. 1730)
De l'Epinay arrived in Louisiana March 9th, 1717, bringing to Bienville the cross of St. Louis, and a royal patent conceding to him by mean tenure in soccage Horn Island, on the coast of the present state of Alabama. De L'Espinay soon disagreed with Bienville; consequently two factions again divided the colony, and quarrels among the officers were of constant occurrence. The most noted event during De L'Epinay's term of office was the resignation by Anthony Crozat of his right of his monopoly of Louisiana trade, which was caused by disgust at failure to bring about increase of emigration to the country or improve his own fortunes. The trade privilege granted fo Crozat did not cease to exist, it was only transferred by the Duke of Orleans, Regent during the minority of Louis XV, to a company under a Scotchman by the name of John Law: this company was first known as the West or Mississippi Company, and afterwards as the (Company of the Indies. De L'Epinay occupied the gubernatorial position for a few months only; he caused extreme dissatisfaction by wisely prohibiting the sale of liquor to the Indians; the colonists declared it to be their most protitable article of commerce and their most powerful source of influeuce over the Indians: hence they were pleased at De l'Epinay's removal.
Jean-Michel l'Epinay de la Longueville
(b. circa 1665-January 3, 1721 in Martinique)

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Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, sieur de Bienville
1718 - 16 Jan 1724 (3rd time) (s.a.)
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Bienville being called to France January 16th, 1724, to answer charges made against him by his enemies in Louisiana, his cousin, Boisbriant, was appointed Governor, ad interim.

The affairs of the Mississippi Company continued to deteriorate, the currency of the colony to depreciate, and the population to decrease in number: it having become reduced from 5400 white souls, which it was computed to be in 1721, to 1700 souls in 1724. Louisiana was daily losing favor in the eyes of France, and the government ordered that the greatest economy be used in its affairs, even going so far as to compel the reduction of its military forces from twenty companies to ten.

During his administration Boisbriant promulgated a law for the protection of domestic animals, which was remarkably severe, going so far as to order the death of a person who would, without leave from proper authority, kill even his own cow or horse.

There being anticipation of war between Spain and England, in which France, as ally of Spain, would be called upon to join, Boisbriant issued a proclamation bidding the colonists to carry to the King's warehouses at New Orleans and Mobile, all the ammunition and provisions they could command, so as to be ready for it. Boisbriant being soon after summoned to France to answer complaints against his conduct, he was replaced by Perier.
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Pierre Dugué, sieur de Boisbriant
ad interim
1724-1726 - (acting)
(b. 1675-d. 1736)
Perier became, in 1725, Boisbriant's successor. The India Company, so as to attach him to its interests, presented him, in addition to his salary, a tract of land fronting on the river, besides a donation of eight negroes a year so long as he remained in office.

Perier caused to be constructed the first Louisiana levee in 1727; it was over a mile in length and eighteen feet broad at its summit. This same year there arrived from France the Jesuit Fathers and some Ursuline Nuns. To the first was granted a portion of land, which afterwards became very valuable, and within the limits of which are now situated St. Mary's Market, St. Charles Hotel and the Cotton Exchange. This was afterwards confiscated by order of the French Government, when the Jesuits were expelled, in 1763. To the Ursulines also some land was given, and a yearly income which was to be continued until their plantation could be made to support them. A residence was built lor them on Conde, now Chartres street; this they took possession of in 1730. This same building was used in 1831 as the State House, and is now the Archbishopric. The Ursuline Nuns were intended for the care of Hospitals and the education of young girls. A boys' school had previously been started in 1724 by Father Cyril, a Capuchin friar.

In 1728, another interesting event took place, the arrival of the first of the casket girls from France. These were especially chosen for their good conduct as wives for the colonists, and were dowered by the King. The girls who had preceded them had been taken from houses of correction.

In November of 1729, began the series of massacres by the Natchez and other tribes of Indians which filled the hearts of the colonists for so long with terror. These had their origin in the tyranny and rapaciousness of Chopart, the French officer commanding the white settlement at Natchez. Perier resorted to violent measures to make the Indians feel his power; not only did he meet them on the battlefield, and build many small forts to protect the whites from them, but he caused the negroes to cut the throats of the Caouaches, a small tribe living near New Orleans, and which had threatened its safety. The negroes obeyed his orders with promptness and secresy. He had four men and two women prisoners belonging to the Natchez tribe to be burned to death as an example. He also permitted the friendly Tunica Indians to burn a captured Natchez squaw with great ceremonies on a platform erected in front of the city. These acts of retaliation only enraged the savages more than ever and caused them to commit other trepredations, so that he was compelled to send to France for soldiers to assist him. The India Company, disheartened by the state of affairs, disappointed in their anticipations, concluded they could no longer support the expense of the colony and resigned their privilege of trade monopoly to the King in 1731. There now occurred in Louisiana a financial crisis, the result of the withdrawal from the money market of the company's bonds.

In 1732, the Superior Council of Louisiana was reorganized, with Perier as one of the King's Lieutenant Governors, and, in 1733. Bienville returned once mote to Louisiana as its Governor for the third time.

Note.- A singular incident occurred at the time of the massacre of the whites at Natchez in 1729; the Indians spared the life of a man named Lebeau because he was a tailor and compelled him to refit all the clothing of the dead so as to be worn by themselves.

Étienne Périer de Salvert
9 Aug 1726-1733
(b. 1687-d. 1766)
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Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, sieur de Bienville
1733 - May 1743 (4th time) (s.a.)
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Vaudreuil succeeded to the administration of the province in 1743; five years afterwards Louisiana was swept by a fearful hurricane which destroyed all the rice crop, and, in 1748, the orange trees were, for the tirst time, killed by the extraordinary severity of the winter. A compensation for these losses came to the colonists in 1751, when the Jesuits of St. Domingo sent to their Order, on the Mississippi, a gift of the first sugar canes which ever entered the colony; this they accompanied by a present of slaves accustomed to its culture, and the cane was planted on the Jesuit Plantation, afterwards the Faubourg Ste. Marie. An other item connected with this period, which should be remembered, is the writing of the first literary production of Louisiana, by Leblauc de Villeneuve, an ofdcer of the garrison: it was a tragedy founded on the assassination of a strange Indian by a Choetan. This latter tied to New Orleans for safety; the relatives of the murdered man followed and demanded his surrender of the Governor. Vaudreuil ordered his arrest, but he escaped, and his father, to secure him from further pursuit, offered his own life instead. The irate relatives accepted the compiomise, and the noble old brave endured torture and death without fiinching.

Vaudreuil conceded to Deruisseau the exclusive right of trading for five years in all the country watered by the Missouri and the streams falling into that river. He also encouraged the delusion that vast mineral wealth, mines of gold and silver, existed in Louisiana. Finding himself in need of money for colonial uses, he created notes of from twenty to thirty livres to be given in payment of the King's debts, and to be exchanged for all other papers, obligations and bonds. This brought down on him the displeasure of France. Vaudreuirs salary was larger than that of any preceding Governor, and he had under him the largest military force ever seen in Louisiana.

In 1753, Vaudreuil left Louisiana to become Governor of Canada, where he distinguished himself in 1756 by his resistance to the English invasion. Vaudreuil's administration in Louisiana was a brilliant epoch. long remembered with pleasure by the people who always spoke of him as the Great Marquis.
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Pierre de Rigaud, marquis de Vaudreuil-Cabagnal
(b. 1698-d. 1778)
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Kerlerec was a distinguished naval officer of 25 years' active service. During the term of this Governor's administration, the French were driven by the English from Nova Scotia, and refugeed in Louisiana where, during twelve months, Kerlerec supplied each one with the pay and rations of a soldier, besides granting them land, and furnishing them with agricultural implements. The disagreements and lighting betwixt the English and French terminated in the complete overthrow of the power of France. A treaty of peace was signed at Paris, 1762, by which all the territory to which France had claims on the left bank of the Mississippi were ceded to Great Britain, excepting the Island of New Orleans, as also were the port and river of Mobile, and all the conquests the first country had made of the latter in America. This disaster added to the population of Louisiana, for the Canadians preferred a removal to its shores to a continuance under British rule. Many Indians also objected to it, and removed to New Orleans from Baton Rouge, Natchez and Mobile, so as to avoid being placed under it. Kerlerec granted them lands on the west of the Mississippi; for this kindly act the King of France sent him to the Bastile, and he died soon after being liberated. The Choctaws had bestowed on him the name of Father of the Choctaws.
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Louis Billouart, chevalier de Kerlérec
(b. 1704-d. 1770)
One of the noted events of this Governor's administration was the expulsion of the Jesuits from Louisiana, and the confiscation of their property, in 1764, by order of the French King. An occurrence of still greater importance was the cession, by secret treaty, in 1765, through obedience to an order of Louis XV, to Spain, of all the remaining French possessions in Louisiana. D'Abbadie died before the cession was effected, and the position of Governor passed, for the time being, to Aubry.
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Jean-Jacques Blaise d'Abbadie
1763-4 Feb 1765
(b. 1726-d. 1765)
Charles Phillipe Aubry served under Louis XV as transitional governor between French and Spanish regimes (1765-1766), after Gov. D'Abbadie died in office.

In 1766, Charles III of Spain sent out Don Antonio de Ulloa, whom he had appointed Governor, to take formal possession of Louisiana for Spain. The French in that Colony were thrown into a great state of excitement by this event, and bitterly hated Aubry, who counseled them to moderation in their acts of opposition, and even aided Ulloa. Aubry surrendered Louisiana to Ulloa at the Balize. For this he is regarded as a renegade.
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Charles Philippe Aubry - (acting)
(b. 17...d. 1770)

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DeUlloa O'Reilly Ynzaga Gálvez Miró
Carondelet Lemos O'Farril Salcedo Laussat

Ulloa was at first treated with indifiference by the people of Louisiana, and even permitted to examine the conntry, for they could not believe Spain really intended to take possession of Louisiana.

In 1737, the yellow fever appeared in New Orleans for the first time. The citizens, imagining they contracted it from the Spaniards, became still more excited against them, and when, on a demand of the Superior Council, Illoa refused to produce his credentials, they were firmly convinced Spain had lost all desire to claim their colony, and insisted on his expulsion from it. The Council allowed Ulloa one month in which to make public his authorization from the King, or else to leave the Province; the citizens took up arms against him, and he chose the latter course, as he had not sufficient troops with him to oppose them.

Antonio de Ulloa
(b. 1717-d. 1795)

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In 1769, France, as a last act of clemency towards Louisiana, relieved it from all its financial difftculties. Soon after this good fortune occurred the noted event which inaugurated Spanish rule in Louisiana, namely: the arrival of O'Reilly, who reached the entrance of the Mississippi on the 27th of July, having with him one trifiate, twenty-eight transports, four thousand nine hundred men, a quantity of arms and ammuuition. Lafreniere, Grandmaison and Marent were sent to signify to him the submission of the colony: he promised a mild paternal government. On July 25th he landed at New Orleans, marched with his troops in battle array to the French garrison, where they were received by Aubry. The white flag of France was lowered, that of Spain hoisted; thus ended French dominion on the shores of the Mississippi after an existence of seventy years, and Louisiana became a dependence of Spain.

O'Reilly, who was now Governor was of Irish birth, but visiting Spain, at the head of some Irish troops, ingratiated himself in the favor of the King who overwhelmed him with favors. He is said to have been small, thin, lame, disagreeable but striking in appearance, mean, cruel, vindictive, ambitious in dispOsition and filled with hatred of the French.

The following were some of the most noted acts of O'Reilly during his gubernatorial term: he took the census of New Orleans the year of his arrival, and found it contained only three thousand one hundred and ninety inhabitants. He arrested many citizens of Louisiana who opposed him, causing five to be shot and others to be imprisoned for life in the Moro Castle at Havana. The Cabildo. or Grand Council, was organized by him, and Castilian laws substituted for the French; he also made regulations respecting unoccupied lands, placed a tax on taverns, coffee houses, billiard rooms, boarding houses, the slaughter house, and on liquors. The purchasing of prisoners from the Indians, so as to save them from torture. and their use as slaves on plantations was recognized by him. To prevent the French from returning to France, as many, dissatisfied with Spanish rule, wished to, O'Reilly issued orders no more passports should be granted. O'Reilly returned to Spain in 1770.

Note: --By attention to incidents occurring during Ulloa's and o'Reilly's terms, it will be seen the Creoles of Louisiana were the first people in America to make open war distinctly for the expulsion of European rule; and as early as 1717 Cadillac, and later in 1726, Valdeterre, King's Commissioner, complained of the "republican spirit" of the Louisianians.

Alejandro O'Reilly
Jul 1769-1 Dec 1769
(b. 1722-d. 1794)
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Ynzaga was the successor of O'Reilly; he administered the laws of Louisiana for seven years with great success; he earnestly endeavored to give satisfaction; his rule was most kindly and Louisiana nourished under it. When, at the completion of his term, Ynzaga left Louisiana, he was as universally regretted as he had beeu universally respected.

Luis de Ynzaga y Amezaga
1 Dec 1769-1777
(b. 1721-d. 1793)
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Galvez was at the youthful age of twenty-one when he became Governor of Louisiana in 1777. His administration was but a continuation of the excellent policy oo Ynzaga. He permitted French ships to come from the West India Islands to Louisiana in ballast and return loaded with the produce of this country, it being paid for either in silver, bills of exchange, or negroes from Guinea. He authorized the colonial vessels to load with European goods at Campeachy and the Island of Cuba, also to export the produce of the colonies to France and the United States: while at the same time all the ports of Spain were open to them.

The duty on tobacco was reduced by Galvez, and furs admitted entirely free: hence. through him, Louisiana prospered commercially. By him immigiation was encouraged, and the Government made to pay the expenses of those who desired to settle in Louisiana, besides furnishing them with lands, cattle, implements of agriculture, etc.

Galvez favored the cause of the American colonies against England; with the consent of Spain he raised an army with which he obtained possession of Baton Rouge, Fort Bute, Natchez and the forts on the Amite. In 1780, Galvez captured Fort Charlotte on Mobile Bay, and secured the conquest of Florida by that of Fort George. For all of these services Galvez was made Brigadier General, then Major General; he became Captain General of Louisiana and West Florida. with brevet of Lieutenant General of the armies of the King and the cross of the order of Charles III. In 1785, Galvez was promoted to the Captain-generalship of the Island of Cuba, still retaining that of Louisiana and West Florida; he even continued to hold these positions for some time after the King had appointed him Viceroy of Mexico, which place had been rendered vacant by the death of his father, Don Mathias de Galvez.

Bernardo Vicente Polinar de Gálvez
(b. 1726-d. 1794)
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Don Estevan Miro, Colonel of the Royal Army, who had already acted as governor of the province during a temporary absence of Galvez, succeeded him. The population of Louisiana, at this time, 1784, amounted to twenty-seven thousand four-hundred and thirty-nine persons, while that of the city of New Orleans was about five thousand. Within the sixteen years during which Louisiana had belonged to Spain, the number of inhabitants had been more than doubled, and now was still further multiiplied by the arrival of many Canadian families. In 1786, Miro published a manifesto, declaring the principles which were to control his administration. In this he strongly advocated a holy observance of Sunday, the closing of all shops and drinking saloons during divine service, condemned severely the idleness and licentiousness so prevalent among free negroes and quadroons, forbade the women from wearing feathers and jewels, ordering a plain handkerchief to be their only head-dress. Gaming, carrying of concealed weapons and duelling- were strictly forbidden. Inhabitants were prohibited from leaving the colony without a passport, or without giving security for their debts. The manifesto contained, besides these, many other wise regulations, some of which are still in force.

On Good Friday of 1788, a fire occurred in New Orleans, which destroyed nine hundred houses, and a large quantity of merchandise. The people of St. Domingo immediately aided the sufferers from this disaster, by sending them a vessel laden with materials for building. Miro availed himself of the misfortune as an excuse to open trade between New Orleans and the United States. In 1791, the St. Domingo insurrection took place and the population of Louisiana received an accession from its refugees; among them came a company of French actors, the first which ever appeared in New Orleans. Miro being created Major-General in the Spanish army, left Louisiana, to the great regret of its whole community.
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Estéban Rodríguez Miró
(b. 1744-d. 1802)
Francisco Luis Héctor, Baron de Carondelet 1791 - 1797 The Baron de Carondelet, having replaced Miro in 1792, began his official life by lighting the town, for which end he taxed each chimney one dollar and twelve and a half cents. He encouraged the importation of slaves, exempting vessels employed in it and their cargoes from duty, while, at the same time, he published regulations for the welfare of slaves. Carondelet fortified the city in 1793 by two forts, one above and one below it, and by three redoubts: he also built Fort St. Philip and a smaller one opposite, near the mouth of the Mississippi, at the same time organizing a militia of six thousand men. Commercial prosperity now blessed New Orleans. Carondelet at this period caused a canal to be dug, which, while it drained the city, made easy communication between New Orleans, Mobile and Pensacola,

Don Andreas de Almonaster furnished the greatest assistance to Carondelet in all his plans for the improvement of New Orleans, and, from the proceeds of his own liberal fortune, built the St. Louis Cathedral, City Hall and the Charity Hospital, which he endowed, besides other buildings.

During Carondelet's term of office many French settled in Louisiana, receiving each $100, besides having the expenses of his voyage paid. Some received large grants of land. The Marquis de Maison Rouge was granted 210,000 acres, Baron de Bastrop 881,583, and Delassus 10,000. About this time an insurrection occurred among the slaves, but was immediately crushed by severe measures.

In 1794, Le Moniteur de la Louisiane, the lirst regular newspaper of the colony, was published.

Carondelet was a short-sized plump gentleman, somewhat choleric in disposition, but not destitute of good nature, firm, prudent, active, a man of business capacity, and both popular and respected.

Note.- New Orleans being for a second time almost destroyed by fire, in 1794, (Governor de Carondelet advised the general use of tile roofing, which previously had been used only in particular instances: and from that time it came into universal use.
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Francisco Luis Hector, baron de Carondelet
(b. 1747- d.1807)
Brigadier General Gayoso de Lemos became Governor 1797. During his occupancy of the gubernatorial position commerce continued to flourish; the United States sent a Consul to New Orleans, and, in 1798, the city was visited by the Duke of Orleans, afterward Louis XVI, and his two brothers the Duke de Montpensier and the Count de Beaujolais. Governor Gayoso died July 18th, 1798, after having, by his extravagant tastes, spent the whole of his large fortune.

Manuel Gayoso de Lemos
1797-18 Jul 1799
(b. 1752-d. 1799)
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Civil governor of Spanish Louisiana and Spanish Florida. He was lieutenant governor of Louisiana French and French government representative.

Nicolas Maria Vidal was a senior official under the authority of Spain under the name "Don Nicolas Maria Vidal". He served in Colombia, then in Louisiana and Florida under the corruption of Charles IV of Spain. This discredited regime contributed to the loss of influence of Spain including Louisiana and the end of the Spanish era Louisiana.

In 1796, the first Treaty of San Ildefonso allows France to return to Louisiana military agreement with military defense policy with Spain against England.

From 1797, Nicolas Maria Vidal refused to carry a list of stewardship regulations desired by the Spanish colonial authorities.

Following the death of Governor Manuel Gayoso de Lemos 18 July 1799, of yellow fever , Nicolas Maria Vidal was appointed civil governor along with his fellow Louisiana, Colonel Francisco Bouligny, appointed military governor, both under the authority of the new governor general acting Sebastián Calvo Puerta y O'Farrill.

Nicolás María Vidal
(Acting Civil Governor)
18 Jul 1799-15 Jul 1801
(b. 17...-d. 1805)
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Francisco Bouligny's Memoir on Louisiana
THE arrival of O'Reillv at the Balize in July, 1769, was announced to Aubry and the people of New Orleans by Don Francisco Bouligny. This officer has left a memoir, written in 1776, on the condition of Louisiana, which is important and interesting.

He was born at Alicante in 1736, of a noble family that was originally from Milan and bore the name of Bolognini. In the tenth generation Francisco was in the service of Spain and was made prisoner by the French and taken to Marseilles, where he changed his name to Bouligny. His son Josef settled at Alicante, Spain, after the War of the Spanish Succession, and was the father of Juan, who was born at Marseilles in 1696. Juan Bouligny appears to have been a man of considerable influence. His letters to his son Francisco are very interesting, and he refers to General O'Reilly as if he knew him intimately in Spain. He had five sons and six daughters. The oldest son was Joseph, who was a wealthy merchant at Alicante. The second son, Juan, was Spanish ambassador at Constantinople, and died at Madrid in 1798, honorary councilor of state. One of the latter's sons was ambassador plenipotentiary of Spain at Stockholm. The third son of Juan Bouligny was Francisco, the fourth and fifth sons were captains in the Spanish army. There are extant charming letters written to Francisco Bouligny of New Orleans by his father and by his four brothers - the merchant, the ambassador, and the two captains.

His oldest son, Dominique, became a United States senator from Louisiana in 1824.

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Francisco Bouligny
(Acting Military Governor)
18 Jul 1799-18 Sep 1799
(b. 1736-d. 1800)
Following the death of Manuel Gayoso de Lemos y Amorin, Spanish military officer Sebastian Calvo de la Puerta Y O'Farrill, Marques de Casa Calvo was appointed interim governor of Louisiana on September 18, 1799. His term was extended until 1801, when illness delayed his successor's arrival. Holding office in a period marked by increasing tensions between the United States and Spain, Casa Calvo spent much of his time and energy fighting to keep Americans out of Spanish Louisiana;a task that ultimately proved doomed to failure.

Sebastian Calvo de la Puerta Y O'Farrill, Marques de Casa Calvo was born in Havana c. 1751 to a wealthy family of Cuban nobles. He attended private schools until entering the army; Company of Nobles as a cadet at age thirteen. His rise through the military ranks began in 1769, when he purchased a commission as captain of cavalry volunteers. By 1794, he had achieved the rank of brigadier. Casa Calvo participated in General Alejandro O'Reilly's 1769 expedition to New Orleans, as well as in the sieges of Mobile (1780), Pensacola (1781), and Providence (1782). He acquired his noble title and was knighted in the Order of Santiago in 1786. Later, in 1794, his warships successfully engaged the French enemy in St. Domingue.

After the death of Governor Manuel Gayoso de Lemos in July 1799, Casa Calvo was sent to Louisiana to serve as interim governor of the Spanish colony. His successor, Juan Manuel de Salcedo, was delayed by illness, leaving Casa Calvo to deal with conflicts within the local government, as well as military problems. Although Casa Calvo attempted to keep the government flowing smoothly, conflicts among local officials; particularly Nicolas Maria Vidal, the ad interim civil governor, and members of the Cabildo made this difficult. Military problems included British threats to invade from Canada, a blockade of the mouth of the Mississippi River that impeded trade and communications with Havana, and Native American organizer William Augustus Bowles' 1800 capture of Fort San Marcos de Apalache in West Florida. In addition, a lack of funds, coupled with the decline of the Fixed Louisiana Regiment, left Casa Calvo unable to prevent Americans from entering Louisiana at will.

Salcedo finally arrived and assumed office on July 14, 1801, but Casa Calvo continued to play an active role in Louisiana politics. In 1803 he returned to New Orleans to assist Governor Salcedo as he turned Louisiana over to France (which subsequently turned the territory over to the U.S. in the Louisiana Purchase. He remained in the area as commissioner of limits for more than two years. As such, he worked to determine the new boundary between Spanish Texas and the United States and prevent American encroachment on Spanish territory. As an advocate of Spanish interests, Casa Calvo became a thorn in the side of American governor William C. C. Claiborne, who ordered his departure in 1806.

After he left Louisiana, Casa Calvo traveled to Spain, where he sided with Joseph I;the intrusive French king sitting on the Spanish throne in 1808 and became a lieutenant general in the king's army. Upon the defeat of the French, Casa Calvo left Spain in disgrace and ended his life exiled in Paris. While the precise date of his death is unknown, he appears to have died in May 1820.

Source: lahistory.org
The office of Governor being left vacant by the death of Gayoso de Lemos, the Marquis of Casacalvo was sent from Cuba to act as Governor, ad interim. In the early part of 1799, Casacalvo solicited that the unlimited introductions of negroes be again permitted; but was refused by the Madrid Cabinet. In June of 1801, Casacalvo, being replaced by Salcedo, retired to Havana.

Casacalvo is said to have been a man of violent temper.

Sebastián Calvo de la Puerta, marqués de Casa Calvo - N
(Acting Military Governor)
18 Sep 1799-15 Jul 1801
(b. 1751-d. 1825)
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Dou Manuel de Salcedo was a Brigadier General in the Spanish army; he came to New Orleans in June of 1801. By secret article of treaty at St. Ildefonso, concluded in 1800, Spain had agreed to transfer Louisiana to France in payment for the Kingdom of Etruria; but not until March 26th, 1803, did Monsieur Laussat, Prefet Colonial, land at New Orleans to take possession of Louisiana for Napoleon 1st. He was received with great rejoicing by the people who, in spite of Spanish rule, remained French at heart.

Immediately upon hearing of this retrocession the President of the United States instructed Robert Livingston, American Minister at Paris, to negotiate for the acquisition of New Orleans and the surrounding territory; he was successful, and, on April 30th, 1803, the treaty was signed by which, for fifteen millions of dollarS, Louisiana was purchased by the United States. On November 30th, 1803. Louisiana was ceded to France through Laussat, after having belonged to Spain a little over thirty-four years, but the tricolor floated only twenty days over the Province, for on December 20th, in presence of all the militia and a large concourse of citizens, collected on the public square in front of the City Hall, Claiborne and Wilkinson, American Comissioners, received the cession of Louisiana to the United States; the French flag was lowered, the American one went up, batteries were discharged, the Province became part of the Union, the colonial history of Louisiana was ended. Within ninety-six years Louisiana hdd changed hands six times; it passed from Louis XIV, in 1712, to the commercial dominions of Anthony Crozat: from him, in 1717, to the Compagnie de L'Occident; from that, in 1731, to the undelegated authority of Louis XV; from him, in 1762, to Spain; from Spain, in 1801, back to France; in 1803, from France to the United States.

Juan Manuel de Salcedo
15 Jul 1801-30 Nov 1803
(b. 1743-d. 18...)
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Laussat was born in the town of Pau. After serving as receveur général des finances in Pau and Bayonne, he was imprisoned during the Terror, but was released and recruited in the armée des Pyrénées. On April 17, 1797, he was elected to the Council of Ancients. After the coup of 18 Brumaire, he entered the Tribunat on December 25, 1799. He was appointed by Napoleon Bonaparte to be colonial prefect (governor) of Louisiana in 1802, and arrived in the colony on March 26, 1803, just two weeks before Napoleon made his decision to sell Louisiana to the United States. For several months Laussat ruled as a normal governor, first abolishing the Cabildo and then publishing the Napoleonic Code in the colony. Within several months, he heard that Louisiana had been sold to the U.S. but did not believe it. On July 28, 1803, he wrote to the French government to inquire whether the rumor was true. On May 18, 1803, he received word from Napoleon that France had declared war on England and that he was to transfer Louisiana to the United States. On December 20, 1803, Laussat transferred the colony to James Wilkinson and William Charles Cole Claiborne, representatives of the United States. On April 21, 1804, he left the colony and became colonial prefect of Martinique, serving until 1809 when he was captured and imprisoned by the British. He later retired to his ancestral chateau in France and died in 1835.

Pierre Clément de Laussat
30 Nov 1803-20 Dec 1803
(b. 1756-d. 1835)
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Claiborne Villeré Robertson Thibodaux Johnson, H.
Derbigny Beauvais Dupré Roman White
Mouton Johnson, I. Walker Hébert Wickliffe
Moore Allen Hahn Wells Baker
Flanders Warmoth McEnery, J. Kellogg Nicholls
Wiltz McEnery, S. Foster Heard Blanchard

Wm. C. C. Claiborne, a Virginian by birth, was the first Governor of the State of Louisiana. In his early youth he removed to New York, where he met a friend whose influence obtained for him the position of enrolling clerk in the House of Representatives of the United States Congress, in 1791. Later on he studied law in Richmond, Virginia, afterwards settling in Sullivan County, Territory of Tennessee, where he began the practice of his profession. Claiborne was chosen member of the Convention which framed the Constitution of Tennessee when it became a State; subsequently he was elected by the Legislature Judge of the Supreme Court of Law and Equity; this he resigned to become Representative in Congress in 1797; he was re-elected to the same position in 1799. when his vote. as member from Tennessee, decided the presidential contest in favor of Jefferson over Aaron Burr. In July, 1801, Jefferson appointed Claiborne Governor of the Mississippi Territory. While still holding this position he was commissioned November 10th. 1803, in conjunction with General Wilkinson, to accept the transfer of the province of Louisiana to the United States. He was then appointed Governor-General of the province for the term of three years. The appointment of an American to this high position gave dissatisfaction to the French, and they demanded of Congress that a Governor be chosen from two candidates of their own selection. The request was not asquiesced to. The Territory of Orleans was created March 2d, 1805. Governor Claiborne resigned the control of the Territory of Mississippi to assume that of the former. This same year New Orleans was incorporated as a city; a branch of the first bank of the United States, a library, some insurance companies and a university were located within its limits. In 1806, many new laws were enacted and murder made punishable by death. In 1809. five thousand nine hundred and seven French, who had refugeed to Havana from St. Domingo, left it on account of trouble between France and Spain, and. bringing their slaves with them, made their homes in Louisiana. Claiborne, in 1810. took possession of Baton Rouge and Mobile, which, up to that period, were still held by Spain. When, in 1812, the Territory of Orleans became, by act of Congress, a State, and received again the name of Louisiana, Claiborne, who had by this time won the admiration of the people, was chosen by them Governor over Villere and Destrehan, two very popular and influential citizens. The use of the French language was now discontinued in public acts, and the legislative power war formed into a Senate and House of Representatives. This year was further marked by the first steamboat arrival at the levee of New Orleans, the boat itself bearing the name of Orleans.

On January 8th, 1815. was fought the Battle of New Orleans, and in December of 1816, Governor Claiborne's occupancy of the Executive chair terminated. He had been for twenty years in the public service of his country. He was now ineligible for re-election, but the people, who had learned to appreciate him at his proper value, determined he should not remain a private citizen, and he was elected by the Legislature of Louisiana to represent that State in the Senate of the United States, in January of 1817. Death prevented the completion of his term. He passed from life November 23d, 1817, admired, beloved, regretted, having, by his integrity, courage and patriotism, gained the good will of his fellow citizens, even of those who at first looked upon him with disfavor because he was an Ameiican and stranger.

Note.- Up to the time of the cession of Louisiana by France to the United States New Orleans was regularly fortified; after that time the fortifications were entirely demolished. Previously, the inhabitants passed in and out by means of four large gates, which were defended by military works and mounted with heavy cannon. These gates were closed each night at the hour of nine. After that hour no one was permitted to walk the streets without the governor's permission.

William C.C. Claiborne - D-R
Dec 1803-16 Dec 1816
(b. 1775-d. 1817)
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Jacques Phillippe Villeré - D-R, elected governor in 1816, was the first native-born governor of Louisiana. He presided over a tremendous increase in population and in the strength of its economy. Now free of the British fleet at the mouth of the river and the Spanish control of the Florida parishes, Louisiana could enjoy unhampered trade down the Mississippi. Prosperity brought conflict between the Anglo-Americans and the Creoles whose families had been in Louisiana for generations. Villeré had to mediate those disputes while administering state government. The Legislature attempted to bridge the two cultures by publishing laws in both languages. The Creole-Anglo conflict dominated state politics until more "partisan" battles became the focal point after the rise of the Whig Party in 1834. Following his term, Villeré retired to his plantation in St. Bernard Parish where he died in 1830.

The Governors of Louisiana - /Antebellum Period - 1812-1861.

James Philip Villeré, who succeeded Governor Claiborne, in 1817, was the first Creole chosen to control the destinies of his native State. -- Biographical sketches of Louisiana's governors, from d'Iberville to McEnery, by a Louisianaise, as a contribution to the exhibit of woman's work, in the Louisiana State Department, at the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition, New Orleans, La., 1884-85 - Mrs. Eugene Soniat du Fossat.

JAMES PHILIP VILLERE — 1816-1820. Villeré was the first Creole chosen to govern the destinies of his native State. -- A history of who's who in Louisiana politics, including state officials, senators, representatives, clerks, together with a sketch of all the governors from 1697 to the present date. - Compiled by Dave H. Brown, Edited and Published by the Louisiana Chronicle Democrat, Coste & Frichter Co., Inc., Printers, 1916.

Governor Villeré [right] as shown in: A history of Louisiana. By Grace King and John R. Ficklen (1893) Author: Grace Elizabeth King, 1852-1932; John Rose Ficklen, 1858-1907, joint author. Publisher: L. Graham, New Orleans.

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Jacques P. Villeré - D-R
16 Dec 1816-17 Dec 1820
(b. 1761-d. 1830)
Thomas Bolling Robertson, a Virginian, became Louisiana's Governor in 1820; he was not only the embodiment of the ideal Virginia gentleman, but a man of unswerving principles, possessing a high order of intellect and education; by profession he was a lawyer. Young Robertson removed from Virginia to the Territory of Orleans in 1805, and soon after was named, by Governor Claiborne, its Attorney General. President Jefferson appointed him Secretary of the Territory in 1807, with right to the Executive Chair, in case of the Governor's absence, sickness or death: in the last case, until appointment of a new successor by the President, and for five months of 1808 he acted as United States District Attorney for the Territory. He was the first Representative elected to the United States Congress from Louisiana after she became a State; this position ill health forced him to resign, in 1818. In July, of 1820, he was elected Governor of Louisiana. He showed himself in every way true to the welfare of the State. He furthered, by all means in his power, popular education. During his period of office the Legion of Louisiana was formed; for many years the finest military organization in the Union. There being few good roads in the State, an act was passed for making a road from New Orleans to the State frontier, in the direction of Nashville: proprietors whose lands it crossed, and those within fifty miles, were required to contribute to its repairS.

In 1823, the Legislative Assembly authorized six gambling houses to be established in New Orleans, on condition that each would pay annually five thousand dollars towards the support of the Charity Hospital and the College of Orleans. It was also in 1823 that the first theatre in New Orleans, called the American, was erected by James H. Caldwell, a citizen of great enterprise, who was also the first to introduce gas for street lighting.

In November, of 1824, Governor Robertson resigned his office to accept, at the hands of President Monroe, the United States Judgeship for the Louisiana District; he remained on the bench until sickness forced his withdrawal: he died October 5th, 1828. Louisiana has cause to be proud of Governor Robertson, as has Virginia to be of his brothers, Wyndham and John Robertson. The wife of Governor Robertson was a beautiful and gifted woman, daughter of Governor Fulwar Skipwith, of West Florida, and Miss Vanderclooster, a Flemish Countess.
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Thomas B. Robertson - D-R
18 Dec 1820 - 15 Nov 1824
(b. 1779 - d. 1828)
H. S. Thibodaux was born in Albany, N. Y., in 1769. his father being Alexis Thibodaux, of Canada. He was orphaned in infancy by the death of his mother and raised by the Schuyler family. His early days were passed in Scotland. On coming to Louisiana, in 1794. he settled on a plantation in Acadia, now called St. James Parish, and afterwards removed to Bayou Lafourche, near the site where stands at present the town which bears his name, Thibodauxville.

Mr. Thibodaux filled various public offices, always with credit to himself and his adopted State.

In 1805, he was elected member of the Territorial Legislature: in 1808, Justice of the Peace for Lafourche County, including at that period Assumption, Lafourche and Terrebonne; in 1811, he was a delegate to the convention which, in 1812, framed the first Constitution of the State of Louisiana. He was three times elected Senator of the General Assembly for the district of Lafourche. A portion of Lafourche was, by his efforts when in the Legislature, incorporated as Terrebonne Parish.

In 1824, Mr. Thibodaux, in his right as President of the State Senate, completed as acting Governor the unexpired term of Governor Robertson.

Mr. Thibodaux married a granddaughter of the great French navigator and discoveier of Canada in 1534, Jacques Cartier.

Henry S. Thibodaux - (acting) - D-R
15 Nov 1824-13 Dec 1824
(b. 1769-d. 1827)
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For a third time was the highest office within the gift of the people of Louisiana bestowed on a son of Virginia when, in 1824, they chose Henry Johnson to be their Governor. He was an urbane, courteous, chivalric gentleman of the old school; honorable and talented, possessed of a keen insight into human nature, and a strong sense of justice and right.

Previous to his election, Mr. Johnson had occupied various positious of public trust. In 1809, he was Clerk of the Second Superior Court for the Territory; in 1811, he became Judge of St. Mary, incorporated at that time from the southern portion of St. Martin's Parish. The County of Attakapas elected him member of the Constitutional Convention of 1812, and, in January of 1818, he was chosen by the Legislature to fill the vacant seat of Governor Claiborne in the United States Senate. Governor Johnson was a noted leader of the Whig party in Louisiana. His administration was a very satisfactory one. In 1842, he ran a second time for the Governorship. but was defeated by Alexander Mouton, the democratic candidate. From 1835 to 1839 Governor Johnson had represented his adopted State in the Congressional House of Representatives, and, in January of 1844, he was elected to fill the vacant seat of Alexander Porter, in the United States Senate.

While in the Senate he presented to that body the resolutions of the Louisiana Legislature favoring the annexation of Texas, and also a memorial from the St. Mary Sugar planters, pleading for a repeal of the tariff of 1846. It was while Johnson was Governor that a highly commended code of civil law and a system of rules for the regulation of legal proceedings, were drawn up by Edward Livingston, under the direction and at the expense of the State; it is also to Livingston that Louisiana is indebted for her penal code. It was also during Johnson's term that the Bank of Louisiana was created, its capital being four million, the State taking half the stock; the Planters' Banking Association too was formed at this time with a fund of two million. General Lafayette visited Louisiana as the Guest of the Nation while Johnson was at the head of the State, in 1825, and, in 1827, under his guidance still Louisiana gave evidence of her gratitude to Thomas Jefferson by presenting two thousand dollars to his family. The vacant seat of Charles M. Conrad in the Lower House of Congress was contested with Judge Bullard, by Governor Johnson in 1850; he was unsuccessful; he afterwards retired to his plantation in Point e Coupee, where he died, at the age of eighty-eight years, in 1867. His wife was Miss Key of Maryland, and he lies by her side in a tree shadowed grave where the rippling waters of the Grosse Tete and Maringoin meet.

Henry Johnson - N-R
13 Dec 1824-15 Dec 1828
(b. 1783- d.1864)
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Pierre Auguste Charles Bourisgay Derbigny. elected July 1828, fifth Governor of Louisiana, a talented and eloquent man, was Frenchman of noble birth. Compelled to leave Fiance duringg the tearful days of revolution he first went to San Domingo, and from there to the United States, remaining for a while in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where he married the sister of the French Commandant, Chevalier Pierre De Hault De Lassus De Lozier. Mr. Derbigny seems to have been seeking a climate akin to that of his native conntry for he removed from Pennsylvania to Missonri, from there to Florida, finally making his home in Louisiana. Mr. Derbigny's talents soon obtained recognition in New Orleans; in 1803, he acted as Mayor Borsee's Secretary: the later part of the same year his linguistic acquirements caused Governor Claiborne to appoint him to the important position of Interpreter of Languages for the Territory. He was at different times Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas, Secretary of the Legislature Couicil, Member of the Lower House of the First State Legislature, Judge of the Supreme Court, twice Secretary of State and Regent of the Central and Primary Schools of New Orleans.

Mr. Derbigny had the honor of delivering the first Fourth of July oration made in the Tenitory: he was also entrusted with the entire management of the business affairs in Louisiana of his personal friend. General Lafayette. After Mr. Derbingny's death. General Lafayette's power of attorney was continued in the hands of his son. Charles Derbigny, In 1820, the first license to run a steam ferry across the river at New Orleans was granted to Pierre Derbigny and a few associates.

Seated in the Executive Chair, 15th December, 1828, Governor Derbigny grasped the reins of State Government in a way which gave promise of a brilliant administration; but alas! the shadow of death was hovering near. October 1st, 1829, his horses ran away with his carriage, he was thrown from it and so severely injured as to die five days afterwards. The entire State of Louisiana was grief-stricken at the sudden carrying off of one whose part predicted so much for his future, and the community of New Orleans gave signal proof of the love and respect his pure patriotism and noble qualities had won from them, by turning out as a single body to his funeral.
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Pierre A.C.B. Derbigny - N-R
15 Dec 1828-6 Oct 1829
(b. 1767-d. 1829)
Mr. Beauvais, a Creole of Louisiana, being at the date of Governor Derbigny's death President of the Senate and ex-officio Lientenant Governor, suceeeded, by constitutional right, to the Executive Chair. which he occupied until January 14th, 1830. In 1810, lie had filled the office of Justice of the Peace in Pointe Coupee Parish, and. in 1814, been elected to the Lower House of the State Legislature, to which position he was twice re-elected afterwards.

From 1822 to 1830, Governor Beauvais was a continuons member of the State Senate; in the latter year he made an unsuccessful run for Governor against A. B. Roman, the successful competitor. From January 31, 1883, until in 1834, Mr. Beauvais was State Senator, in lieu of Mr. Chenevert, who had resigned.
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Armand Beauvais - (acting) - N-R
6 Oct 1829-14 Jan 1830
(b. 1783-d. 1843)
Jacques Dupre being elected President pro tem, of the State Senate, he became ex-officio Lieutenant Governor: hence succeeded Armand Beauvais in filling the incompleted term of Governor Derbigny; this he did only temporarily, from January, 14, 1830, to January 31, 1831. There being no law providing for the election of a Chief Magistrate until the entire term of four years belonging to the preceding one had expired. Governor Dupre could have retained the post much longer. This was not his desire, and he yielded the position to Governor-elect Roman, who assumed control of the State; the seat of government having been again transferred to New Orleans, which was more convenient for business than Donaldsonville. Governor Dupre's early education had been somewhat limited; but his strong, practical common sense, compensated, in a great measure, for this; he was a man of wealth, being a large stock raiser in his native county of Opelousas; in fact, he is reported to have owned more cattle than any other man in Louisiana at that time.

Note. - The Railroad Company of Pontchartrain was incorporated in 1831, being the fifth of the kind in the United States.

Jacques Dupré - N-R
14 Jan 1830-31 Jan 1831
(b. 1773-d. 1846)
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André B. Roman was one of Louisiana's distinguished Creoles: he was born in Opelousas, March 5, 1795, but was raised on his father's sugar plantation in the Parish of St. James; he received his education at St. Mary' s College, near Baltimore, graduating at that institution in July, 1815. On reaching the years of manhood he purchased a sugar plantation in St. James, which became his permanent home. He represented his parish in the House of Representatives for the lirst time in 1818; he was several times re-elected; was for four years Speaker, after which he received, at the request of his constituents, the appointment of Parish Judge.

Elected in 1830 Governor of the State, Governor Roman entered upon his executive duties January 31, 1831; he was as prominent for his literary tastes as he was politically, and founded Jefferson College. He had the welfare of his State at heart in every way; by his untiring efforts the water courses of Louisiana were cleared of rafts, and a company formed to drain the swamp lands around New Orleans and protect it from overflow; to him also is due the construction of the Penitentiary at Baton Rouge.

He recommended the formation of a State Agricultural Society. This proposition was acted upon by the Legislature, a model farm was started, but the indifference of the planters killed the project.

In 1834, he not only heartily endorsed the incorporation, by the Legislature, of the New Orleans Chamber of Commerce, but urged it warmly.

When Governor Roman's term of office expired, in 1835, he retired to private life only to be called again to the same position in 1838, when his capable and faithful fulfillment of his duties added fresh laurels to those which already crowned his life. Not even after two terms of arduous service was he to be left to the enjoyment of home life. He was elected to the Constitutional Convention of 1845, sent to Europe in 1848 as agent of the Consolidated Association and Citizens' Bank, on business of importance. He was elected to the Constitutional Convention of 1852, and to the Secession Convention of 1861. Governor Roman was a Whig in politics and a Unionist, but yielded his private opinion to that of the majority, and united his fate to that of his State and fellow-citizens.

He had the honor to be one of the three Commissioners sent by the Confederate Government, at Montgomery, Ala., to Washington City for the purpose of securing a peaceable separation.

He refused to take the oath of allegiance to protect his property, and, at the end of the war, accepted from Governor Wells a commission as Recorder of Deeds and Mortgages in New Orleans.

Governor Roman died suddenly as he was walking on Dumaine street, January 26th, 1866. He had served Louisiana during many days of sorrow and trial; for while he was in office she had suffered from severe storms, overflow, cholera and yellow fever. In each misfortune his aid and sympathy were unfailing. When the clouds of war gathered on her horizon, too old to serve her himself on the field, he gave her his sons, and to-day Louisiana gratefully remembers and honors his name.

André Bienvenu Roman - Whg
31 Jan 1831-4 Feb 1835 - (1st time)
4 Feb 1839-30 Jan 1843- (2nd time) - (s.a.)
(b. 1795-d. 1866)
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In 1835, E. D. White, a native of Tennessee, a man of classical education, by profession a lawyer, was raised to the Executive chair. Mr. White came to the Province of Louisiana with his father, Judge White, prior to its cession by France to the United States. He pursued his educational studies at the University of Nashville, in Tennessee, and afterwards his legal ones under Alexander Porter, in Louisiana.

Governor Henry Johnson appointed Mr. White Associate Judge of the City Court of New Orleans, in 1825. He was three times elected to the Lower House of Congress by the people of Lafourche, in which parish he owned a large sugar estate. Judge White took his seat as Governor of Louisiana February 4th, 1885. He served his State with marked ability, but even his strong mind and correct judgment could not avert the evil results of the land speculation mania which infected so large a number of her citizens and brought to so many of them total ruin. During the short space of two years the General Assembly, which seemed stricken with what Was termed by President Jefferson "Bancomania," had chartered seven new banks and pledged the credit of the State in favor of the Citizens' Bank. Paper money continued to be issued to an incredible extent, the bank discounting profusely. The result was, naturally, great distress in financial matters. Governor White vetoed a bill which had passed the Legislature chartering the Farmers' Bank, by this move saving the State from an increase of pecuniary worries. May 13th, 1837, fourteen of the New Orleans banks suspended specie payments, in addition to the above disaster, a new tariff had been placed on American sugar, which caused planters to cease cultivating cane and bestow their care on cotton, the price of which was run up to 18 and 20 cents. This condition of affairs brought about numerous bankruptcies and Governor White used the most strenuous efforts to save Louisiana from the evil consequences of the rash conduct of her own citizens. Previous to the close of his gubernatorial career, the Governor was, for the fourth time, elected to the Lower House of Congress, this being repeated in 1810 and 1812.

Governor White, like his intimate friend, Governor Henry Johnson, was a staunch Whig. He was possessed of strong practical sense, frankness of character, and a merry bluff humor, which, combined with his keen wit and capacity for harmless satire, won him many life-long friends, while he even held, in an extraordinary degree, the confidence of the people at large. Governor White's well spent life closed April 18, 1847. His wife, who was a Miss Ringgold, of the Distilct of Columbia, still lives in this city, as do his children, among whom are two sons, James, who is a physician, and Edward D., a lawyer. The latter was a democratic member of the State Senate from 1871 to 1878, in which year he was also appointed Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the State by Governor Nicholls.

Edward D. White - Whg
4 Feb 1835-4 Feb 1839
(b. 1795-d. 1847)
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André B. Roman - Whg - (s.a.)
4 Feb 1839 - 30 Jan 1843 - (2nd time)
(b. 1795-d. 1866)
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The venerable Alexandre Mouton, who so lately died on his plantation, near Vermillionville, in Lafayette parish, retaining to the last the love and esteem of all who had known him through his long and untarnished career, became the ninth Governor of Louisiana. Governor Mouton was born on Bayou Carencro, in Attakapas, November the 19th, 1801, and, at the time of his death, was probably the oldest surviving United States Senator; to him also belongs the distinction of having been the first Democrat to fill the Executive Chair. Governor Mouton was a descendant of one of the Acadian refugee families whom Longfellow's pen so glowingly described; his first wife was the granddaughter of Governor Jacques Dupre, and his second one the daughter of an old officer of the United States Army; he was the father of General Alfred Mouton, killed at Mansfield in 1864, and father-in-law of General Gardner, who defended Port Hudson. Alexandre Mouton studied law in his youth, but did not practice it long, having a preference for the quiet of a country life; he undertook planting near the town of Vermillioiiville, which was built on land donated, for the purpose, by his father, Jean Mouton; but his fellow-citizens called him again and again from the retirement of his home. In 1826, they chose him as their Representative in the State Legislature, re-electing him three times consecutively, and again in 1836. For two sessions he was Speaker of the House. January, 1837, he was elected to fill the unexpired term of Judge Porter, and was chosen as his successor for the six-year term. While in Congress he was on many important committees; he resigned his position in the Senate to accept that of State Governor, and entered upon his new duties January 30th, 1843; these came to an end in three years, on account of an entire change in the State Constitution. Following this the Governor retired to private life until he came again to the front as delegate to the Cincinnati National Convention of 1856; he was also delegate, in 1860, to the National Convention, at Charleston, S. C, for the nomination of the United States President, delegate to and President of the Secession Convention at Baton Rouge in 1861, and, finally, candidate for the Senate of the Confederate Congress. In all the positions of private and public life Governor Mouton was efficient and trustworthy, leaving behind him the reputation of being one of the best Governors the State ever had.

Alexander Mouton - Dem
30 Jan 1843-11 Feb 1846
(b. 1804-d. 1885)
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Again, in 1846, was a Democrat installed in the Executive Chair, Isaac Johnson, of West Feliciana Parish. He was a gentleman of high social position, the son of a British officer who settled in the province of Louisiana during the Spanish regime. Mr. Johnson belonged to the legal profession, in which he was successful and popular. When member of the Legislature, and afterwards Judge of the Third District, he gave complete satisfaction. As Governor he fully justified the confidence and esteem of the people. Wheu he issued a proclamation calling for voluuteers to reinforce General Taylor, in Mexico, thousands rallied to his call; these reinforcements enabled Taylor to add the conquest of Matamoras to his other glorious achievements.

Governor Johnson was ever ready to uphold State rights, and was bitterly opposed to any meddling, by Congress, with the slavery question; he was also a strong supporter of our public schools. During his official term both the State House and Penitentiary, at Baton Rouge, were completed.

On March the 15th, 1853, Governor Johnson, of whom it was said "he possessed so many fine traits of character, he gained friends innumerable, but never an enemy," expired suddenly in New Orleans, at the Verandah Hotel.
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Isaac Johnson - Dem
12 Feb 1846-27 Jan 1850
(b. 1803-d. 1853)
The subject of this sketch was born and grew into manhood on St. Ann street, in New Orleans, almost under the shadow of the old St. Louis Cathedral; he was of French descent, upon the maternal, and English on the paternal, side. Young Walker was educated in the best schools existing at the time of his youth in his native city; when grown he purchased, with a legacy bequeathed by his English grandmother, plantations iu Rapides parish, where he became an eminently successful cotton planter. Being an unswerving Democrat, an ardent supporter of Southern States rights, he was ever a favorite with his party. For a series of years he filled various official positions previous to being placed at the helm of the State. He had been in the Legislature, both as Representative and Senator, besides President of the State Constitutional Convention of 1845 and State Treasurer, in 1846. Never. were such determined efforts made by the Whigs to crush the Democratic party, as in 1849, when Mr. Walker was nominated for Governor, and the esteem in which he was held is signally evidenced by the fact that he was victorious when the opposing party had such influential leaders as General Alexander De Clouet and Mr. Duncan F. Kenner.

Ou the 28th of January, 1850, his triumph culminated by his installation inb the Executive Chair at Batou Rouge, being the first Governor inaugurated there.

The people of Louisiana were so dissatistied with the Constitution of 1845, that a new one was adopted in 1852; this was strongly opposed by Governor Walker, as was also the withdrawal of the prohibition to create banking institutions, he considering that neither one of these measures would be benefcial to the State. It was during Governor Walker's administration, and that of his predecessor, the Cuban expeditions from the United States took place: these ended in complete failure. The leader. General Narcisso Lopez, was executed, which excited the friends of the cause to such an extent there was a riot in New Orleans against the Spanish tlag, for which the Federal Government was obliged to give redress to Spain.

The new Constitution of 1852 coming into operation. Governor Walker resigned at the end of three years, having, from first to last, conducted the administration of the State with marked ability and success. Efforts were made to have him take up again the thread of public life; but he refused every honor offered him, even the position of Congressman.

In 1812-15, Governor Walker served as Brigadier General of the State Militia. Death deprived Louisiana of this devoted son, January 25, 1856, but he left a record on her annals that both his family and State can be proud of, for in every phase of his existence, private and public, civil and military, he did his duty and did it Avell. Can greater meed of praise be given?

Joseph Marshall Walker - Dem
28 Jan 1850-15 Jan 1853
(b. 1784-d. 1856)
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In Louisiana, on the banks of the Mississippi River, at the Acadia Plantation, so called because its owner, Paul Hebert, was of acadian descent, was born on November 12th, 1818, Paul Octave Hebert, twelfth Governor of the State. From his earliest years he gave evidence of those characteristics and talents which were in the future to procure him a high place among men. He graduated at the head of the Jefferson College Class of 1880, and again at the head of the West Point graduates of 1810; these were forty-four in number, and among them were several who became distinguishied in after life. So soon as his cadetship expiired, he became Second Lieutenant in the Engineer Corps, and, in 1841, Assistant Professor of Engineering at West Point; in 1842, he was ordered to Barataria, in Louisiana, to superintend the construction of the defenses of the Western Passes. In 1845, he tendered the resignation of his army position, as Governor Mouton had appointed him Chief Engineer of the State. It was at this time Governor Hebert issued his noted report opposing the Raccourci Cut-off. In 1846, he volunteered against Mexico, starting out as Lieutenant Colonel 14th Infantry Volunteers; he took an active part in the battle of Contreras, Chermbusco, Molino del Key ; at the last named place, he was complimented by General Scott personally, and brevetted Colonel for his gallanttry; he was also at the storming of Chapultepec and the capture ot the City of Mexico, covering himself with glory in all of these engagements. Honors, justly deserved all of them, seemed to crowd upon young Hebert; in 1851, he was called from the quiet of his agricultural pursuits to visit Paris as Commissioner to the World's Fair; in 1852, he was chosen member of the State Constitutional Convention, and the same year elected Governor of the State. Governor Hubert being ill at the time. Chief Justice Eustis, accomjjanied by a committee from the Legislature, repaired to his plantation where they administered to him the oath of office. During the war of secession. Governor Hebert, who after his gubernatorial term was concluded, had returned to his planting interests, was appointed by President Davis, early in 1861, one of the live Brigadier Generals for the Provisional Army of the Confederacy, who were subsequently confirmed by the Confederate Congress as officers of the Regular Army.

Governor Hebert was first in command of Louisiana, then of the Trans-Mississippi Department, afterwards of Texas, and finally of the Galveston defences. At the termination of the war General Hebert surrendered to General Granger, U. S. A. who returned him his sword, and kindly gave him especial transportation for himself and family to New Orleans. President Johnson removed General Hebert's political disabilities in 1865. In 1873, he was created State Engineer by Governor Kellogg: the same year he received from General Grant the appointment of Commissioner and Civil Engineer on the Board of United State.s Engineers for the Mississippi Levee. When Greely ran for President against Grant, Governor Hebert led that wing of the Democratic paity in Louisiana which sustained Greely.

After an illness of some months, General Hébert died April 20th, 1880. Governor Hebert was a fluent speaker and a brilliant writer; he was fond of society, which he graced: his hospitality was well known; he was a club man, and for several years President of the Jockey Club in New Orleans.

Governor Hebeit married twice, each time into a prominent Louisiana family.
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Paul Octave Hébert - Dem
18 Jan 1853-21 Jan 1856
(b. 1818-d. 1880)
Louisiana's thirteenth Governor, Robert C. Wickliffe, comes of excellent lineage, and we have only to turn back a page or so of his family history lo learn whence he derived the traits of character which have won for him so many admiring friends. His father was Governor Chas. A. Wickliffe, of Kentucky, also Postmaster General of the United States, and for ten consecutive years member of Congress; besides, being twice elected to the Lower House of that body, during the civil war. Running for Governor again in 1803 he was unsuccessful, owing to his opposition to Lincoln whom, he asserted, had broken his promise to preserve slavery. On the maternal side, Governor Robert Wickliffe is grandson of Col. Cripps, who made for himself a name in the Indian fights of Kentucky, and nephew of Dr. Brashear, of this State, for whom Brashear City is named. Governor Wickliffe is a man of classical attainments and belongs to the legal profession, of which he is an able and successful member.

In 1854, he was elected State Senator and re-elected the two succeeding terms without opposition; he was also President of the Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of William Farmer. For four years he was Governor of Louisiana, taking possession of his oifice January 22, 1856. The Governor belongs to the Democratic party; and was opposed to secession so long as the South could remain in the Union with honor. Governor Wickliffe gave earnest attention to all the interests of the State, and his administration was a satisfactory one to the people.

In 1866, they chose him to Represent them in the Lower House of Congress; but he was denied admittance for refusing to take the oath demanded of him, in accordance with Reconstruction laws. In 1876, Goveimor Wickliife was an elector for the State at large, on the Tilden ticket. He is now practising his profession at the bar in West Feliciana, where he has resided ever since 1846. A handsome man in his youth. Gov. Wickliffe is still so in his older days, and he is noted everywhere for his conversational gifts, courtly manners and refinement; he was twice married, his first wife being the charming daughter of the well-known Judge Dawson, of Feliciana, and his second. Miss Anderson, of Kentucky.

Robert C. Wickliffe - Dem
22 Jan 1856-22 Jan 1860
(b. 1819-d. 1895)
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This gentleman was a North Carolinian. The esteem in which his family were held in their native State is evidenced by the naming of Moore County for them. Governor Moore's grandfather on the distaff side was General Thomas Overton, who held the position of Major during the Revolutionary War under General Lee's father. He acted as second for Genera] Jackson in a duel, and his son. General Walter H. Overton, was aid to Jackson at New Orleans.

When Governor Moore came to Louisiana he settled in Rapides Parish as a cotton planter, and was sent from there to the State Senate in 1856, where his political course was so creditable he was elected Governor on the Democratic ticket of 1860. Early in his administration "he convened the Legislature in extra session to determine the course Louisiana should pursue in view of the evident determination of the General Government to destroy the institution of slavery".

Through Governor Moore's advice a convention was called by the Legislature, at Baton Rouge, on the 23d of January, 1861. The 26th of the same month the Convention passed the Ordinance of Secession and Louisiana bid farewell to the Union.

Thus were fulfilled the prophetic warnings of every Governor who had controlled the State for during more than forty years, beginning with Governor Robertson, in 1820. No sooner had the decree of Secession been declared than Governor Moore ordered Adjutant General Grivot to organize the militia force of the State, consisting of 24,000 men, ready for active service. With these troops the military posts and garrisons within the State were taken possession of, with many thousands of stands of arms and immense quantities of ammunition. A Soldiers' Relief Association was formed, and free markets opened in New Orleans. Governor Moore compelled the banks to suspend specie payments, even though by this move they forfeited their charters, as he considered this necessary for their protection. Being petitioned by many cotton factors of New Orleans to issue an order forbidding the introduction of cotton within its limits, he did so, although such a course was not guaranteed by law of any kind but that of practical sense and emergency of circumstance. When, by the disastrous fate of war, New Orleans passed under Federal control, in 1862, Governor Moore called together the Legislature at Opelousas; the quorum of members being small, they were reassembled at Shreveport. Here his official term drew to a close, and he passed the scepter of State Government on to his successor, the brave and gallant Allen.

Governor Moore cannot be described better than in the words of Meynier: "He was remarkable for his truthfulness and strict integrity as well as for the purity of his private life. His disposition was fiery, and, politically a democrat, he believed in the precepts of Jefferson and Jackson, being a great admirer of the General's determination whose example he followed in his gubernatorial career."

Governor Moore's life ended at his home in Rapides Parish, June, 1876, aged seventy-one.

Thomas Overton Moore - Dem
23 Jan 1860-25 Jan 1864
(b. 1804-d. 1876)
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George F. Shepley, a native of Maine, befriended Benjamin Butler when they were both attending the 1860 Democratic National Convention in Baltimore. Shepley's relationship with Butler, the commander of the Department of the Gulf for the Union, brought him to Louisiana.

After the fall of New Orleans, Butler appointed Shepley commandant of New Orleans. In June, 1862, he was appointed Governor. Shepley presided over the civil government of those Louisiana parishes occupied by Federal troops. He acted as no more than a middle man who communicated the directives from Washington and received the requests of citizens' groups.

Shepley became Military Governor of Virginia after Richmond fell, but soon returned to Maine where he practiced law. He died in Portland in 1878.
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George Foster Shepley - Dem (Unionist)
(U.S. Military Governor)
2 Jul 1862-4 Mar 1864
b. 1-Jan-1819, Saco, Maine -
d. 20-Jul-1878, Portland, Maine
Louisiana's fifteenth Governor was Henry W. Allen, the idol of the people, whose name is a household word, and of whom it may be said: "There is glory in his dust." To Virginia, the mother of statesmen and soldiers, belongs the honor of having given Governor Allen birth. Through his ancestors, he was of Scotch and Welsh extraction. Of his parents we need no clearer picture than the following words of Meynier, which, at the same time, eulogize son and parents. In speaking of the Governor, he remarks: "He inherited the energetic determination, strict integrity and courage of his father, softened by the constancy and impulsive tenderness of his mother. While yet a lad, at Marion College, Missouri, the future soldier gave proof of the determined character which marked his after life, by challenging an officer of the State militia, who had insulted his father, and forcing him to apologize. The restless disposition which possessed young Allen caused him to run away from college, but destiny led him with kindly hand, for, landing at Grand Gulf, he obtained a position as tutor in the family of W. R. McAlpine, where he made life-long friends. Two years later he opened a school within the town of Grand Gulf, devoting his leisure hours to stndying law, the practice of which he began so soon as licensed, and in which his native talent brought him success. When Sam Houston, President of Texas, called for volunteers, in 1842, to aid her in defying Mexico, both Allen and his brother Nathaniel enlisted for six months, for which service they were thanked by the Secretary of War and the President. In 1842 Mr. Allen married Miss Salome Crane, of Rodney, Miss., a lady noted for her brilliant wit, quickness of repartee and many loveable traits of character. She brought him, as dowery a plantation in Claiborne County; this became their home. In 1846, Mr. Allen was elected to the State Legislature of Mississippi, a position he filled with honor. After the death of his wife, which occurred in 1850, Mr. Allen's fancy for roving reasserted itself. He removed to Texas, La., and afterwards to West Baton Rouge. Here, as in Mississippi, his merit soon became manifest. The people of the jiarish recognized it by electing him to the House of Representatives, in 1853. He had previously been defeated for the State Senate. In 1854, he resumed his collegiate course at Cambridge University; but, ever restless and fond of adventure, neither planting, nor law, nor literature, could charm him long, and, in 1859, we find him crossing the Atlantic, with the intention of taking part in the Italian war and travelling through Europe. During his absence, his friends again elected him to the Louisiana Legislature. When the war toesin sounded, in 1861, Mr. Allen was in Havana. Pleasure had no witcheries for him when country called. He immediately returned home, where he joined, as volunteer, the Delta Rifles. of the Confederate Army. Before very long he was elected Lieutenant Colonel of the Fourth Louisiana. In this capacity he figured at Ship Island and Fort Berwick, becoming, eventually, after his Colonel's death. Military Governor of Jackson, Miss. At Shiloh, where he gave a rare example of courage, he was wounded in the cheek, and at Baton Rouge was desperately wounded. Not being one to shield himself from what he held as sacred duty, he barely allowed himself time for recovery ere he returned to the army, when he was appointed Brigadier General and ordered to the Trans-Mississippi Department. Scarcely had he reached Shreveport and entered on his new responsibilities when, by unanimous choice, he was placed at the helm of the State, being inaugurated Governor January 25th, 1854. His message to the Legislature touched upon all the necessities of the State and pointed out clearly those matters calling for legislation. He addressed a personal communication to General Kirby Smith. December 21st, 1864, opposing strongly that official's unfortunate order to the planters of Louisiana, bidding them burn their cotton. June 2d, 1865, his term of administration being ended, the pilot who had guided the bark of State through such troublous waters gave up its helm and sought fortune's favor in the City of the Incas. The people of Louisiana, whom absence could not teach to forget him, made a futile effort to have him return among them and accept, for a second time, the Executive Chair. In Mexico a newspaper was started especially for him, and he was acting as editor, with success and credit to himself, when, on April 22d, 1866, death overtook him whom we had learned to cherish for his valor and high deeds, and to whom we offered the incense of our hearts. Henry Watkins Allen has passed away, but
"His spiritual influence is upon his kind.
He lives in glory: and his speaking dust
Has more of life than half its breathing moulds."

Though he died among strangers, his body does not lie in foreign soil. Here, in the Crescent City, he rests under a monument of marble until loving hands will have prepared a more suitable place of repose. Amid the fragrant magnolias and weeping-willows which surronnd the State Capitol is a spot his own fancy loved. No sound disturbs its silence but the low whispering of the winds, the warbling- of the birds, and here, at some future day, will the State Place him who has a right to the honor she will gratefully bestow on him.

Henry Watkins Allen - Dem
(Confederate Governor)
25 Jan 1864-2 Jun 1865
(b. 1820-d. 1866)
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Was born in Bavaria, in 1830. Soon after his birth, his parents removed to New York: and in a few years, from thence to New Orleans: here he graduated in the high schools, entered the law office of Christian Roselius and graduated ere yet twenty years of age. with the degree of L. L. B., in the Louisiana University. By an exception made in his favor, he was permitted to practice his profession previous to the legitimate period for so doing. Mr. Hahn had a natural inclination for politics, and while attending to his business, still found some leisure to bestow on them: he was antagonistic to the Slidell wing of the Democratic party: opposed the nomination of James Buchanan for President, in 1856. He was a strong Douglass advocate and a bitter opponent to slavery. Member of the committee who, in 1860-61, canvassed against secession, he did all he could to prevent the dismemberment of the Union. When, during the early period of the late agitation, all public, State and Parish officers took the oath to the Confederacy, Michael Hahn omitted it in renewing his oath of office as Notary: no public notice was ever taken of this omission.

Farragut's Federal fleet arriving at New Orleans, April 25, 1862, Mr. Hahn hastened to pledge his allegiance to the United States Government according to the oath administered by the Federal Office.

The latter part of the same year, he became Representative of the Second Congressional District in Congress, when his able advocacy of what he chose to consider "Louisiana's cause," overcame the objections made by leading Republicans against himself and Mr. Flanders, Representative of the First District, taking the seats they claimed.

On returning to New Orleans, Mr. Hahn advised that no more Congressional elections be held until Louisiana became more thoroughly reconstructed. He bestowed his attention on the re-opening of the Federal Courts and endeavored to have the State immediately reorganized as a free one. To further the plans of Lincoln and Grant, he bought and edited the New Orleans True Delta.

Mr. Hahn was inaugurated as Governor. March 4, 1864, being elected in New Orleans on the Free State ticket, in opposition to Mr. Flanders and Mr. Pillows, who was the Conservative candidate. In the meanwhile. Gov. Allen, who had been elected by the Confederates and inaugurated at Shreveport, January 25. 1864, was in control of all that portion of the State not occupied by Federal forces.

President Lincoln had great contidence in Gov. Hahn, and addressed him a letter advising the elective franchise be extended to the colored race, so as to enable the using of them in furthering the Reconstruction policy. Gov. Hahn attempted to bring this about; but could only succeed in having the Fifteenth Section adopted. The State Legislature chose him to fill a Senatorial position in the Congress of 1865; he presented his claims, but did not press them, owing to the fact that the reconstruction views of Mr. Johnson varied from those of this predecessor, President Lincoln.

Mr Hahn was the organizer and chief editor of the New Orleans Republican, started in 1867. He has been several times member of the School Board, three times member of the Legislature for the parish of St. Charles, and once speaker of the House. In 1876, he was State Registrar of Voters, subsequently Superintendent of the United States Mint, in New Orleans; since then. Judge of the Twenty-sixth Judicial District, and is now, 1885, Congressman elect from Louisiana. Governor Hahn is an able speaker and writer; as a politician, he is ever actuated by that which he considers the true principle; he is extremely popular in his own parish, and has the respect and good opinion of many who are to the opposing party.

Michael Hahn - Rep
(U.S. Military Governor)
4 Mar 1864-4 Mar 1865
(b. 1830-d. 1886)
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Seventeenth Governor of Louisiana, was born in the State, but raised partly in Washington City, partly in Kentucky. On reaching manhood he returned to his birthplace, where he has always lived on his estates as sugar and cotton planter. In 1840, he filled the position of Sheriff; in 1864, Lieutenant Governor on the Hahn ticket, and assumed the position of Governor in lieu of Mr. Hahn when he resigned. In 1865, he was elected Governor on the Citizens' ticket, and removed by General Sheridan in 1867. By appointuient of General Grant, at that time President, he became Surveyor of the Port of New Orleans, an office he continued to hold under President Hayes. He was also chairman of the Returning Board of 1876, which decided the Presidential contest in favor of Hayes.

James Madison Wells - Rep
4 Mar 1865-3 Jun 1867
(b. 1808-d. 1899)
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B. F. Flanders left New Hampshire, his native State, and made New Orleans his home in 1848: here he studied for the bar. Much of his time has been devoted to teaching in the public schools of New Orleans, in which he was. for many years, Principal, being finally chosen Superintendent in the Third Municipality, a position he refused. The newspaper business has also received his attention, he having been at one time part proprietor and one of the editors of the New Orleans Tropic.

Mr. Flanders has filled various public positions, all of them important, and in every instance with merit; but at no time has he been so occupied otherwise, as to overlook the cause, of popular education, of which he has been so warm an advocate, and for which he has accomplished so much In 1848, he was elected Alderman of the Third Municipality, and again in 1852; the latter year, he was also appointed Secretary and Treasurer of the Opelousas and Great Western Railroad Company. In 1862, the Federal military authorities made him Treasurer of New Orleans: this office he resigned in a few months, having been elected to represent the First District in Congress.

In 1868, Mr. Chase appointed him Supervising Special Agent of the Treasury Department for Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas; this he resigned in 1866. For one year he was President of the First National Bank of New Orleans, at the completion of which period he withdrew, General Sheridan, U. S. A., created him Military Governor of Louisiana, in June, 1867; he resigned in six months. Governor Warmoth made him Mayor of New Orleans in May of 1870; the ensuing November he was elected to the ottice and held it for the two following years. In 1873, General Grant appointed him United States Assistant Treasurer at New Orleans; this office he has held up to the recent time.

Benjamin Franklin Flanders - Rep
(Military Governor)
3 Jun 1867-8 Jan 1868
(b. 1816-d. 1896)
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Was born in Kentucky, March 23d, 1799. His parents renmoved to Mississippi when he was only four years of age, and subsequently to Louisiana, in 1811, settling in St. Mary's Parish. Mr. Baker grew into manhood amid the grand old oaks which beautify the banks of the limpid Teche, and the decline of his years is passing peacefully under their moss-bannered branches. In 1819, he graduated at West Point, and is to-day its oldest graduate in existence. When Governor Baker travelled to West Point from St. Mary's Parish, in 1817, the entire journey was made in a wheeled conveyance. What a difference between then and now! While still pursuing his studies there he was appointed assistant Professor of Engineers, and was afterwards, for many years, a member of the Board of Examiners of the Academy. Louisiana has many evidences of his knowledge in mechanics in the bridges he has built in several parishes, and in the Franklin Court House, constructed under his supervision. Mr. Baker studied law in Connecticut, but entered the Kentucky bar, eventually returning to Louisiana, where he continued to practice his profession. In 1829, he was appointed Judge of St. Mary's Parish. Judge Baker owned several large plantations, still he gave much of his attention to steamboating and the lumber trade. In politics, the Judge was a conservative Democrat, and an opponent of secession. General Hancock, of the United States Army, the Gulf Department Commandant, in 1867, appointed him Governor of the State at that time.

Governor Baker is one of Lonisiana's well-known citizens, who has won many friends, not only by his kindly ways and generous nature, but by the fact that he has always been an upright man. honest in his opinions and principles.

Note. - Since writing the above Governor Baker has gone to give the record of long years well spent; he died at the residence of his daughter, in Connecticut, on Apri 15th. Disease did not carry him off.
"He fell like autumn fruit that mellowed long.
Even wonder'd at because he dropped no sooner."

Joshua Baker - Rep
(Military Governor)
8 Jan 1868-27 Jun 1868
(b. 1799-d. 1885)
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Governor Warmoth was born in Illinois, in 1842; he entered the Missouri bar as early as 1860, being soon afterwards appointed District Attorney for the Eighteenth Judicial District of Missouri. During the late war. Mr. Warmoth was at one time Brigadier General of the Missouri State troops; he resigned to become Lieutenant Colonel of the Thirty-second Regiment of Missouri Infantry, remaining in this capacity from the first fight at Vicksburg, until the capture of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. Afterwards he was Chief of Staff to Major General McClernand in the Gulf Department: subsequently, Gen. Banks appointed him Judge of the Provost Court of the Department of the Gulf.

Col. Warmoth left the Federal Army in 1865, when he undertook the practice of law in New Orleans; the following year began his political career, he was sent to Congress by the Republicans; but failed to obtain his seat, on account of the decision by Congress not to re-admit Louisiana. In 1868, the Republicans elected him Governor in opposition to the candidate on the Independent ticket.

Gov. Warmoth's party had chosen him previous to this to represent Plaquemines Parish in the Lower Honse of the General Assembly of Louisiana, and subsequently elected him to the Constitutional Convention of 1879; he, at one time, made an unsuccessful run for the State Senate.

For many years. Governor Warmoth has resided on his plantation, in Plaquemines Parish; it is one of the show places of the State, and is frequently visited by strangers, who are ever sure of a hospitable welcome, from the Governor and his charming wife.

Henry C. Warmoth - Rep
27 Jun 1868-9 Dec 1872
(b. 1842-d. 1932)
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Pinckney Benton Stewart Pinchback was the first non-white and first person of African American descent to become governor of a U.S. state. A Republican, he served as the 24th Governor of Louisiana for 35 days, from December 9, 1872, to January 13, 1873.

Pinchback was born in May 1837 in Macon, Bibb County, Georgia, to Eliza Stewart, a former slave, and William Pinchback, her former master, who were living together as husband and wife. The family had diverse ethnic origins; William Pinchback was of mixed Scots-Irish, Welsh and German descent, while Eliza Stewart had African, Cherokee, Welsh and German ancestry.[2] Shortly after Pinchback's birth, his father William Pinchback had purchased a much larger plantation in Mississippi.

Pinchback was brought up in relatively affluent surroundings. He was raised as white and his parents sent him north to Cincinnati, Ohio, to attend school. In 1848, however, Pinchback's father died. William Pinchback's relatives disinherited his mulatto wife and children and claimed his property in Mississippi. Fearful that the northern Pinchbacks might also try to claim her five children as slaves, Pinchback's mother fled with them to Cincinnati. Pinckney left school and traveled on river and canal boats. For awhile he resided in Terre Haute, Indiana, working as a hotel porter. During that time he was known as Pinckney B. Stewart. He had not yet adopted the surname Pinchback.

In 1860 Pinchback married Nina Hawthorne of Memphis, Tennessee. The Civil War began the following year, and Pinchback decided to fight on the side of the Union. In 1862 he furtively made his way into New Orleans, which had just been captured by the Union Army. He raised several companies for the Union's all black 1st Louisiana Native Guards Regiment. Commissioned a captain, he was one of the Union Army's few commissioned officers of African American ancestry. He became Company Commander of Company A, 2nd Louisiana Regiment Native Guard Infantry (later reformed as the 74th US Colored Infantry Regiment). Passed over twice for promotion and tired of the prejudice he encountered from white officers, Pinchback resigned his commission in 1863.

At the war's end, he and his wife moved to Alabama, to test their freedom as full citizens. Racial tensions there during Reconstruction were reaching shocking levels of violence, however, he brought his family back to New Orleans.

[edit] Political careerAfter the war, Pinchback returned to New Orleans and became active in the Republican Party, participating in Reconstruction state conventions. In 1868, he organized the Fourth Ward Republican Club in New Orleans. That same year, he was elected as a State Senator, where he became senate president pro tempore of a Legislature that included 42 representatives of African American descent (half of the chamber, and seven of 36 seats in the Senate). In 1871 he became acting lieutenant governor upon the death of Oscar Dunn, the first elected African-American lieutenant governor of a U.S. state. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P._B._S._Pinchback)

P.B.S. Pinchback - (acting) - Rep
9 Dec 1872-13 Jan 1873
(b. 1837-d. 1921)
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Is a Vermonter, his education was acquired at Norwich University; he removed to Illinois in 1848, where he studied law and applied himself to its practice. He was in the Federal Army during the war of Secession as Colonel of the 7th Illinois Cavalry, and, up to the evacuation of Corinth, commanded Granger's Cavalry Brigade. The last official signature from President Lincoln's hand was that signed to the commission of Kellogg, as Collector of the New Orleans Port, in 1865; Republican Senator from Louisiana to Cougress, elected in 1868. he resigned in November, 1872. to become Republican candidate for Governor of the State.

John McEnery was elected by a large majority; but the returniug Board so managed matters that Kellogg obtained possession of the Executive Chair which he occupied, under the protests of the people of Louisiana, until January 5th, 1877. The result of this occupancy was the memorable "Fourteenth of September," during which disturbance Kellogg concealed himself in the United States Customhouse, where Federal bayonets protected him. A Republican Legislature elected him to the United States Senate, and, in the latter part of 1877, he took his seat; but for years it was contested by the opposing candidate, Judge Spofford. Governor Kellogg was Louisiana Delegate to the Chicago Convention of 1868, which gave Grant his first nomination; Chairman of the Louisiana Delegation to Chicago in 1880, which nominated Garfield, besides having been, in 1876, Chairman of the Louisiana Delegation to the Cincinnati Convention.

William Pitt Kellogg - Rep
13 Jan 1873-5 Jan 1877
(b. 1830-d. 1918)
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Is the brother of our present Governor, S. D. McEnery; he was born in Virginia, educated at Hanover College, Indiana; is a graduate of the New Orleans Law University, and began the practice of his profession in Monroe, Louisiana. At one time he was Registrar in the Monroe Land Office, a position his father had once filled for eight years; but President Buchanan removed him because he strongly advocated Stephen Douglas for the Presidency, whereupon he returned to the law. During the late troubles between the North and South, Mr. McEnery served with honor and distinction in the Confederate Army, he began as Captain, but was twice promoted for his daring. He was in the field both in Virginia and Georgia, and held the advanced posts at Savannah. In 1863, he took part in the battle of Secessionville, recapturing the Fort on James Island which had been taken by the Federals, thereby saving Charleston, foj- which act he was greatly commended; he participated in many other battles, being twice wounded. In 1860, he was elected to the Legislature, but the Reconstruction Acts of Congress deprived him of his place in 1867. In 1871, Col. McEnery was nominated three times for the Executive Office; in June, by the Democrats, July, by the Democrats and Reformers, and August, by the Democrats and Liberals; he carried the State, as he so worthily deserved to, by a majority often thousand, and yet was counted out by the Republican Returning Board In 1865, under the Allen State Government, Governor McEnery had been elected Judge of the Twelfth Judicial District of the State. For some years he has been living in New Orleans, where he devotes himself to his profession.
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John McEnery - Dem
(in opposition)
13 Jan 1873-22 May 1873
(b. 1833-d. 1891)
Francis Redding Tillou Nicholls was an American attorney, politician, judge, and a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He served two terms as the 28th Governor of Louisiana, first from 1876 to 1880 and then from 1888 to 1892.

Nicholls and such fellow Democrats as Richard Coke of neighboring Texas and Wade Hampton of South Carolina were called "Redeemer" governors because their elections, coupled with the accession to the White House of moderate Republican President Rutherford B. Hayes, essentially ended the power of Radical Republicans during Reconstruction. As things developed, the "Redeemers" imposed a one-party system on the defeated South which lasted for nearly a century.

In his biographical sketches Meynier so truthfully depicts Nicholls, the "Chevalier sans peur et sans reproche" of Louisiana. We will quote his words in describing this "Bayard of the South:" "Brave and capable as a soldier, and incorruptible as a civilian, his private life has been above reproach, and his public career in the discharge of both military and civil duty, an unbroken testimonial of his self-sacrilicing devotion to what he considered the best interests of the State in which he was born, and of the people amongst whom he had spent the most delightful portion of man's existence - boyhood days."

Governor Nicholls' birth place is Donaldsonville. La. His father, Thomas C. Nicholls, was a Marylander. He was a lawyer, and had filled several judicial positions; but the crowning honor of his life is the fact that to him is due the organization of the first temperance society of Louisiana, he himself being its President. Governor Nicholls was partially educated at the New Orleans Jefferson Academy; he completed his studies at West Point, where he graduated in 1855, receiving at the same time a lieutenancy in the Second Regiment of United States Artillery. Later he passed into the Third Regiment, from which he resigned in the latter part of 1856, with the intention of preparing for the legal profession. After completing his law course he was examined before the Supreme Court and licensed in 1858, when he immediately began practicing in Donaldsonville. At the outbreak of the war Governor Nicholls donned the grey, and his military record proves he was "brave as the bravest who wore it." He was at first elected captain of a company from Ascension and Assumption. In June, of 1861, he was chosen Lieutenant Colonel of the Eighth Regiment of Louisiana Volunteers. In 1862, he was appointed Colonel of the Fifteenth Louisiana. Only a few days later he received the commiission of Brigadier General commanding the Second Louisiana Brigade. Governor Nicholls was no "carpet knight;" his was an active part at Winchester, Chancellorsville, Port Royal. At the first place he lost his right arm and was captured; at the second a shell deprived him of a foot. But neither prison nor wounds could damp his ardent love of country. So soon as he was exchanged, so soon as his wounds would permit, he took the field again. He was ordered, after Chancellorsville, to take charge of the defence of Lynchburg, Va., and, in 1864, was placed in control of the Conscript Bureau of the Trans-Mississippi Department: there the close of the war found him. He returned to his extensive practice after the surrender, but was called from it by the Baton Rouge Convention of 1876, which nominated him for Governor. In the election he triumphed over his opponent to the extent of eight thousand votes: the circumstances attending it being related in the sketch of Governor Packard, there is no need to repeat them; suffice it to say, that in his political career, as in his military, he ever led in the path of honor. To-day he lives in New Orleans, quietly attending to his profession: politics know him not; he is among old friends who esteem him, surrounded by a loving family, honored by all who know his name; and to whom in the whole State of Louisiana is the name of Francis T. Nicholls unknown?

Francis T. Nicholls
8 Jan 1877-13 Jan 1880 - (1st time) - Dem
21 May 1888-10 May 1892 - (2nd time) - (s.a.)
(b. 1834-d. 1912)
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Was born in New Orleans, January 21st, 1843, and educated, in a great measure, at the City Public Schools. He volunteered in the Confederate service, as private in the Orleans Artillery, when a lad scarcely eighteen. Before attaining his majority, he was elected Captain of Company E, of the Chalmette Regiment. Not very long after this event, the Regiment had the misfortune of being captured. Governor Wiltz, however, was soon exchanged, and was ordered on detached duty in the Mississippi Department, being transferred afterwards to the Trans-Mississippi Department; subsequently he became Provost Marshal at Franklin, Louisiana, remaining there until the war ended. On his return from the scene of national strife, he felt a growing interest in politics and entered the arena of political strife. In 1868, he was chosen by the Democrats to represent them in the State Legislature; the same year Mr. Wiltz was elected to the Common Council of the City, made School Director, member of the Board of Aldermen and its President. Mr. Wiltz ran twice for Mayor of New Orleans: the first time he was elected, but counted out by political trickery; the second time the Republicans had the election postponed, but Mr. Wiltz was eventually elected. In 1875, he was a member of the Legislature and Speaker of the House.

When Governor Nicholl was the Executive head of the State, Mr. Wiltz became Lieutenant Governor and President of the State Senate: subsequently he was President of the Constitutional Convention, and became the choice of the people for the Gubernatorial office in 1879. Not two years of his term had elapsed when all Louisiana was thrown into mourning by his death, on October 16, 1881, His demise was a shock to the entire community; he was the leader of his party, and had given Louisiana his active support in the days when her political horizon was one of intense gloom; his was a career of golden promise, and all hearts grieved to see it so prematurely closed. In his military life Gov. Wiltz was enthusiastic, brave and faithful; his political acts were prompted by a desire to serve the State of his birth, and in all things he gave entire satisfaction to his constituents. Never will Louisiana forget the brilliant young Governor, who, in peace as in war, was so unselfishly, so entirelv devoted to her cause.
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Louis Alfred Wiltz - Dem
14 Jan 1880 - 16 Oct 1881
(b. 1843 - d. 1881)
While Louisiana still wept over the early death of Governor Wiltz, Lieutenant Governor Samuel D. McEnery succeeded, by constitutional Right, to the Executive chair. He is a Louisianian. His collegiate course was pursued at Spring Hill College, the Naval Academy, at Annapolis, Md., and the Virginia University. He graduated in his destined profession at the State and National Law School, of Poughkeepsie, New York, in 1859, upon which he went to Missouri for the purpose of practising, but in twelve months returned to Louisiana. Early in 1861, Mr. McEnery entered the voluiiteer forces of thie Confederacy, as Lieutenant of the Pelican Greys; a year later he became Lieutenant in the regular Confederate Army, and was placed in command of a camp of instruction, near Trenton, La. When the war terminated he again took up his law practice, which proved successful and remunerative. The Democrats frequently requested him to enter the political lists, offering him honorable preferment in the Legislature, or on the Judicial Bench. Finally, he allowed himself to be placed on the same ticket with Mr. Wiltz, in 1879. When Governor Wiltz died, Governor McEnery completed the term left vacant by that great misfortune. In 1881. the people elected him for a second term on his own account. This he now fills. Need we say how conscienciously and satisfactorily? No! His actions are present facts that speak for themselves, and that which they tell is all in his favor.

The writer of these sketches is all unaccustomed to appearing before the public and hesitates to take the step since circumstances has compelled her work to be so hastily done; no time was allowed for rounding of sentences, or polishing of rhetoric. She feels, however, as a Louisianian "to the manor born" she must contribute her "widow's mite" to the "woman's work" in the Louisiana State Department; this desire must be her excuse, and she hopes will purchase for her the indulgence of all who may venture to read what she has written. But while the style of the work is certainly faulty, the matter should be correct, having been drawn from such sources as Gayarre, Bunner, Meynier, Darby and Stoddard, and it is hoped this will compensate for other deficiencies. New Orleans, April 20th, 1885.
Samuel Douglas. McEnery - Dem
16 Oct 1881 - 20 May 1888
(b. 1837 - d. 1910)

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Francis T. Nicholls - (2nd time) - Dem (s.a.)
21 May 1888 - 10 May 1892
(b. 1837 - d. 1910)
Murphy James Foster, Sr. was a Louisiana politician who served two terms as the 31st Governor of Louisiana from 1892 to 1900.

Early and personal life Foster was born on a sugar plantation near Franklin, the seat of St. Mary Parish, to Thomas Foster and the former Martha P. Murphy. He was educated in public schools and attended Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia, and graduated from Cumberland University in Lebanon, Tennessee in 1870. He studied law at the University of Louisiana (later Tulane University) in New Orleans and was admitted to the bar in 1871.

On May 15, 1877, Foster married the former Florence Daisy Hine, the daughter of Franklin merchant T.D. Hine. She died on August 26, 1877, at age 19. In 1881, he married the former Rose Routh Ker, daughter of Captain John Ker and the former Rose Routh of Ouida Plantation in West Feliciana Parish near Baton Rouge. The couple had ten children, nine of whom lived to maturity. One was Murphy James Foster, II, the father of future Governor Murphy (Mike) Foster. By and large the family has been Episcopalian.

After leaving the office of governor in 1900, Foster was elected by the state legislature as a U.S. senator. He served until 1913, when he lost the Democratic nomination. Thereafter, he was appointed by President Woodrow Wilson as the customs collector in New Orleans.

He died in 1921 on the Dixie Plantation near Franklin, some nine years before his future grandson-governor was born.

Murphy J. Foster - Dem
10 May 1892-8 May 1900
(b. 1849-d. 1921)
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Heard was educated in a local school in his native Union Parish. He long remembered the challenges of educating children in rural areas. Heard worked to create the first Louisiana State Board of Education.

On December 3, 1878, Heard married the former Isbella E. Manning. The couple had seventeen children, including Louisiana Belle, Manning, William Wright Heard, Jr., and Alma, who died as a toddler.

Public serviceIn 1884, Heard was elected to the Louisiana House of Representatives from Union Parish in north Louisiana, based about Farmerville. After a single four-year term, he was elected in 1888 to the Louisiana State Senate for a four-year term. In 1892, Heard was elected as Louisiana state auditor, a position that he held for two terms of eight years. The auditor's position is no longer elected.

As a protege of the outgoing governor, Murphy James Foster, Sr., Heard was controversially hand-picked by Foster to succeed him at the Democratic state convention of 1900 at a time before Louisiana held primary elections. Heard was a Democratic Party but with Populist tendencies and a supporter of the expanded coinage of silver.

At the general election, he defeated two Republicans running on separate tickets, both of whom received less than 22 percent of the vote following the mass-scale disenfranchisement of Black voters via Jim Crow laws. Reflecting this was the dramatic decline in voting, from a post-Reconstruction high in the 1896 statewide election of over 203,000 votes down to only 76,000 by 1900. Not until 1940 would more than 200,000 voters participate in a general election for governor. This 1900 election also marked the last time Republicans would have any real presence in the legislature until the 1960s.

Heard was inaugurated governor on May 8, 1900, and held this office until May 10, 1904. At the time Louisiana governors could not succeed themselves. His term was fairly low-key compared to other colorful and dynamic personalities that held that office and he was considered to be a "bureaucratic" governor. His lieutenant governor was Albert Estopinal, a planter and outgoing state senator from St. Bernard Parish. As state banking commissioner, Heard named Lee Emmett Thomas, like Heard a native of Union Parish. Thomas was thereafter the mayor of Shreveport, Louisiana from 1922-1930 and had also served as Speaker of the Louisiana House of Representative from 1912-1916.

It was during Heard's term that the discovery of oil was made by W. Scott Heywood and Associates of what is now Jeff Davis Parish, then part of Calcasieu Parish. This company completed Jennings Oil Company Number 1, Jules Clement, at Evangeline on September 21, 1901. This was the start of the vital Louisiana oil and gas industry. Coupled the wealth of this industry with the rise of forestry and the earlier discovery of Sulfur, the state was sent on a new wave of economic growth. Eventually, Louisiana became one of the major American producers of oil and natural gas in addition to a center of petroleum refining and petrochemicals manufacturing, as the state remains to this day, augmented by offshore drillings.

The Louisiana Revised Statutes specify that the governor shall determine the design of the official state seal. To standardize a design for the seal, Governor Heard instructed the Secretary of State in 1902 to use a seal described as: "A Pelican, with its head turned to the left, in nest with three young; the Pelican, following the tradition in act of tearing its breast to feed its young; around the edge of the seal to be inscribed 'State of Louisiana'. Over head of the Pelican to be inscribed 'Union, Justice', and under the Pelican to be inscribed 'Confidence'." The description of the seal included the motto, which Gov. William Heard had chosen: Union, Justice, Confidence. This seal was adopted on April 30, 1902.

Heard achieved the formation of the state prison system, which eliminated private contracted prisons. He was also instrumental in forming the State Department of Pest Control, thus trying to control the hated boll weevil, which plagued the cotton plants.

Serving in public office most of his early life, Heard became a banker in New Orleans after his single term as governor. He died in New Orleans and is interred there at Metairie Cemetery.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Wright_Heard)

William Wright Heard - Dem
8 May 1900-10 May 1904
(b. 1853-d. 1926)
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Newton Crain Blanchard was a United States Representative, Senator, and the 33rd Governor of Louisiana.

Born in Rapides Parish in Central Louisiana, he completed academic studies, studied law in Alexandria in 1868, and graduated from the Tulane University Law School in 1870 (then named the University of Louisiana). He was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Shreveport in 1871; in 1879 he was a delegate to the State constitutional convention.

Blanchard was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-seventh and to the six succeeding Congresses and served from March 4, 1881, until his resignation, effective March 12, 1894; while in the House of Representatives he was chairman of the Committee on Rivers and Harbors (Fiftieth through Fifty-third Congresses). He was appointed and subsequently elected as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Edward Douglass White, who was appointed to the United States Supreme Court. Blancard served in the Senate from March 12, 1894, to March 4, 1897; he was not a candidate for a full term in 1896. While in the Senate, Blanchard was chairman of the Committee on Improvement of the Mississippi River and its Tributaries (Fifty-third Congress).

Elected associate justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court, Blanchard served from 1897 to 1903, when he resigned. He was governor from from 1904 to 1908, and thereafter resumed the practice of law in Shreveport. In 1908, he attended the Conference of Governors held in Washington, D.C., to promote conservation. Technically his term as governor had ended the day before U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt convened the meeting in the White House.

In 1913, Blanchard was again a member of the State constitutional convention, this time serving as president. He died in Shreveport in 1922; interment was at Greenwood Cemetery there.

Newton Crain Blanchard - Dem
10 May 1904-12 May 1908
(b. 1849-d. 1922)
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Jared Young Sanders, Sr. was a journalist and attorney from Franklin, the seat of St. Mary Parish in south Louisiana, who served as his state's House Speaker (1900-1904), lieutenant governor (1904-1908), the 34th Governor (1908-1912), and U.S. representative (1917-1921). Near the end of his political career he was a part of the anti-Long faction within the Louisiana Democratic Party. Huey Pierce Long, Jr., in fact had once grappled with Sanders in the lobby of the Roosevelt Hotel in New Orleans.

He was actually Jared Jordan Sanders, born near Morgan City, also in St. Mary Parish, to Jared Young Sanders, II, and the former Elizabeth Wofford. He did not use the Roman numeral "III" but was referred to as Jared "Sr.", after the birth of his only son, "Jared Young Sanders, Jr.," but really Jared Sanders, IV. Sanders was educated in the public schools of Franklin, St. Charles College in Grand Coteau, and the Tulane University Law School in New Orleans, from which he received his LL.B. degree in 1893. He was the editor and publisher of the weekly Franklin newspaper, the St. Mary Banner, from 1890 to 1893. He launched his law practice in New Orleans in 1893, and his firm included a cousin, former Governor Murphy J. Foster, Sr., grandfather of future Republican Governor Murphy J. "Mike" Foster, Jr. (1996-2004).

On May 31, 1891, Sanders married the former Ada Veronica Shaw of Fouke in Miller County in H. Shaw. Their son, Jared, Jr. (actually Jared, IV), would also become a U.S. representative. The couple divorced after Sanders' term as governor ended in 1912. Sanders then married the former Emma Dickinson of New Orleans.

Sanders served in the Louisiana House of Representatives from St. Mary Parish for two nonconsecutive terms, 1892-1896 and 1898-1904. He was strongly anti-lottery. He was also a delegate to two Louisiana constitutional conventions, 1898 and 1921. After his speakership, he was lieutenant governor, an official when then (but no longer) presided over the state Senate. Sanders was the first Louisiana governor elected by primary balloting.
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Jared Young Sanders - Dem
12 May 1908-14 May 1912
(b. 1869-d. 1944)

Party abbreviations: Dem=Democratic, Rep=Republican, D-R=Democratic-Republican, N-R=National Republican, Whg=Whig

French Period - 1699-1766
Spanish Period - 1766-1803
French Interim Period - 11/30 - 12/20/1803
Statehood/Antebellum Period - 1812-1861
Confederate Governors - 1861-1865
United States Wartime Military Governors - 1862-1865
Military Occupation Period - 1865-1877

- The Governors of Louisiana,1885, by C. J. BARROW
By a Louisianaise, as a contribution to the exhibit of Woman's Work, in the Louisiana State Department,
at the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition, New Orleans, La.
- rulers.org
Source material "as written".

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